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Flashcards in Ovarian Cancer Deck (100)
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1

How common is ovarian cancer?

It is the fourth most common cancer in the UK

2

What % of deaths in women aged 40-60 years does ovarian cancer account for?

5%

3

What is the average age of presentation of ovarian cancer?

60 years

4

What other cancers can share histological features with ovarian cancer?

Fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer

5

How is the management of fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer similar to that of ovarian cancer?

They are treated with a similar approach

6

What appears to protect against the development of ovarian cancer?

Suppressed ovulation

7

Give two examples of things that suppress ovulation

-Prolonged breastfeeding
-High-oestrogen OCP

8

What % of women with ovarian cancer have a positive family history?

Up to 7%

9


What is the risk of ovarian cancer in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome?

10%

10

What are the well recognised familial patterns occur in ovarian cancer?

-Hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families
-Lynch type II families

11

What mutations do hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families have?

BRCA1 or BRCA2

12

What cancers are lynch type II families at increase risk of of?

-Ovarian
-Endometrial
-Colorectal
-Gastric

13

What mutations do lynch type II families have?

Mutations in mismatch repair enzymes

14

What kind of cancer is most common in the ovary?

Epithelial tumours

15

What % of ovarian cancers are epithelial tumours?

90%

16

What histological class of cancer do epithelial ovarian tumours include?

Adenocarcinomas

17

What are the potential histological appearances of adenocarcinomas of the ovary?

-Serous
-Mucinous
-Endometrioid
-Clear cell
-Squamous cell

18

What are the other, rarer types of ovarian tumours?

-Germ cell tumours
-Carcinosarcomas
-Sex cord tumours

19

In what ways to ovarian germ cell tumours resemble testicular germ cell tumours?

In histology and clinical management

20

What are the features of carcinosarcomas?

-Aggressive
-More susceptible to haematogenous spread

21

What kinds of tumours does ovarian sex cord tumours include?

-Granulosa cell tumours
-Thecomas
-Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours
-Gonadoblastomas

22

What do sex cord ovarian tumours occasionally produce?

-Oestrogens
-Androgens

23

What can oestrogens produced by sex cord ovarian tumours cause?

-Precocious puberty
-Postmenopausal bleeding

24

What can androgens produced by sex cord ovarian tumours cause?

Virilisation

25

What are the symptoms of early stage ovarian cancer?

Asymptomatic in the majority of cases

26

When do most women with ovarian cancer present?

When they have advanced disease

27

What are the symptoms of advanced ovarian cancer?

-Vague abdominal discomfort
-Bloating
-Altered bowel habit
-Nausea and vomiting
-Backache
-Weight loss

28

What % of women with ovarian cancer present with advanced disease that is stage 3-4?

70%

29

Can ovarian cancer cause vaginal bleeding?

It is uncommon, and more likely to be Fallopian tube cancer

30

When is it important to consider and exclude ovarian cancer?

In a woman presenting with recent chance in bowel habit, or with vague abdominal symptoms