Flashcards in Ovarian Cancer Deck (100)
How common is ovarian cancer?
It is the fourth most common cancer in the UK
What % of deaths in women aged 40-60 years does ovarian cancer account for?
What is the average age of presentation of ovarian cancer?
What other cancers can share histological features with ovarian cancer?
Fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer
How is the management of fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer similar to that of ovarian cancer?
They are treated with a similar approach
What appears to protect against the development of ovarian cancer?
Give two examples of things that suppress ovulation
What % of women with ovarian cancer have a positive family history?
Up to 7%
What is the risk of ovarian cancer in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome?
What are the well recognised familial patterns occur in ovarian cancer?
-Hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families
-Lynch type II families
What mutations do hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families have?
BRCA1 or BRCA2
What cancers are lynch type II families at increase risk of of?
What mutations do lynch type II families have?
Mutations in mismatch repair enzymes
What kind of cancer is most common in the ovary?
What % of ovarian cancers are epithelial tumours?
What histological class of cancer do epithelial ovarian tumours include?
What are the potential histological appearances of adenocarcinomas of the ovary?
What are the other, rarer types of ovarian tumours?
-Germ cell tumours
-Sex cord tumours
In what ways to ovarian germ cell tumours resemble testicular germ cell tumours?
In histology and clinical management
What are the features of carcinosarcomas?
-More susceptible to haematogenous spread
What kinds of tumours does ovarian sex cord tumours include?
-Granulosa cell tumours
-Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours
What do sex cord ovarian tumours occasionally produce?
What can oestrogens produced by sex cord ovarian tumours cause?
What can androgens produced by sex cord ovarian tumours cause?
What are the symptoms of early stage ovarian cancer?
Asymptomatic in the majority of cases
When do most women with ovarian cancer present?
When they have advanced disease
What are the symptoms of advanced ovarian cancer?
-Vague abdominal discomfort
-Altered bowel habit
-Nausea and vomiting
What % of women with ovarian cancer present with advanced disease that is stage 3-4?
Can ovarian cancer cause vaginal bleeding?
It is uncommon, and more likely to be Fallopian tube cancer