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Flashcards in Head and Neck Cancer Deck (104)
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1

How common is head and neck cancer worldwide, compared to other cancers?

It is the 6th most common cancer worldwide

2

What % of cases of cancer in the UK are head and neck cancers?

4%

3

Which gender is head and neck cancer more common in?

Men

4

What % of cases of head and neck cancer occur in men?

65-90%

5

How does age affect the incidence of head and neck cancer?

The incidence increases with age, particularly over 50 years

6

What can head and neck cancer be classified into?

-Oral cavity
-Larynx
-Pharynx

7

What % of head and neck cancers are in the oral cavity?

44%

8

What % of head and neck cancers are in the larynx?

31%

9

What % of head and neck cancers are in the pharynx?

25%

10

Why do patients with head and neck cancers have particular problems?

-Close proximity of the tumours to important structures in the head
-Severe social consequences to treatment

11

Give an example of a severe social consequence to treatment of head and neck cancer

Loss of voice in laryngeal cancer

12

What are the most significant risk factors for head and neck cancers?

-Smoking
-Chewing tobacco or betel nuts
-Alcohol consumption

13

Which type of alcohol consumption in particular is a risk factor for head and neck cancer?

Spirits, which act synergistically with tobacco

14

What are the other risk factors for head and neck cancers?

-UV light exposure
-Viral infections
-Environmental exposure
-Radiation

15

What type of head and neck cancer is UV light exposure a risk factor for?

Lip cancer

16

What viral infections are risk factors for head and neck cancer?

-EBV
-HPV

17

What environmental exposures are risk factors for head and neck cancers?

-Wood dust
-Nickel

18

What type of head and neck cancers is radiation a risk factor for?

-Thyroid
-Salivary gland

19

Describe the geographical distribution of nasopharyngeal cancer

It is most common in Southeast Asia, and is seen in Arabs and Inuits, but worldwide is rare

20

What proteins in the body have a strong association with head and neck cancer?

The major histocompatibility complexes H2B, BW46, and B17

21

What have case-controlled studies in Chinese patients suggested as having a link to nasopharyngeal cancer?

Salted fish consumption

22

What mutations are associated with head and neck cancer?

TP53 tumour suppressor gene

23

What type of cancers are the majority of head and neck cancers?

Squamous cell carcinomas

Except nasopharyngeal tumours

24

What % of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas?

90%

25

What type of cancers are most nasopharyngeal cancers?

Anaplastic

26

What are the rarer histological forms of head and neck cancer?

-Adenoid cystic carcinoma
-Plasmacytoma
-Melanoma
-Sarcoma
-Lymphoma

27

What % of patients with head and neck cancers have multiple primary sites at presentation?

Up to 20%

28

What is the best means for detecting a cancer in the head and neck region?

Physical examination

29

What should be inspected in physical examination for head and neck cancers?

-Teeth
-Gingivae
-Entire mucosal surface
-Lymphoid tissue of tonsillar pillars
-Tongue mobility

30

What should be noted when inspecting the lymphoid tissue of the tonsillar pillars?

Any asymmetry