Flashcards in Head and Neck Cancer Deck (104)
How common is head and neck cancer worldwide, compared to other cancers?
It is the 6th most common cancer worldwide
What % of cases of cancer in the UK are head and neck cancers?
Which gender is head and neck cancer more common in?
What % of cases of head and neck cancer occur in men?
How does age affect the incidence of head and neck cancer?
The incidence increases with age, particularly over 50 years
What can head and neck cancer be classified into?
What % of head and neck cancers are in the oral cavity?
What % of head and neck cancers are in the larynx?
What % of head and neck cancers are in the pharynx?
Why do patients with head and neck cancers have particular problems?
-Close proximity of the tumours to important structures in the head
-Severe social consequences to treatment
Give an example of a severe social consequence to treatment of head and neck cancer
Loss of voice in laryngeal cancer
What are the most significant risk factors for head and neck cancers?
-Chewing tobacco or betel nuts
Which type of alcohol consumption in particular is a risk factor for head and neck cancer?
Spirits, which act synergistically with tobacco
What are the other risk factors for head and neck cancers?
-UV light exposure
What type of head and neck cancer is UV light exposure a risk factor for?
What viral infections are risk factors for head and neck cancer?
What environmental exposures are risk factors for head and neck cancers?
What type of head and neck cancers is radiation a risk factor for?
Describe the geographical distribution of nasopharyngeal cancer
It is most common in Southeast Asia, and is seen in Arabs and Inuits, but worldwide is rare
What proteins in the body have a strong association with head and neck cancer?
The major histocompatibility complexes H2B, BW46, and B17
What have case-controlled studies in Chinese patients suggested as having a link to nasopharyngeal cancer?
Salted fish consumption
What mutations are associated with head and neck cancer?
TP53 tumour suppressor gene
What type of cancers are the majority of head and neck cancers?
Squamous cell carcinomas
Except nasopharyngeal tumours
What % of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas?
What type of cancers are most nasopharyngeal cancers?
What are the rarer histological forms of head and neck cancer?
-Adenoid cystic carcinoma
What % of patients with head and neck cancers have multiple primary sites at presentation?
Up to 20%
What is the best means for detecting a cancer in the head and neck region?
What should be inspected in physical examination for head and neck cancers?
-Entire mucosal surface
-Lymphoid tissue of tonsillar pillars