Radiotherapy Flashcards Preview

Cancer Care > Radiotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiotherapy Deck (122)
Loading flashcards...

What is radiotherapy?

The use of high-energy rays to treat disease


How does radiotherapy work?

By destroying cancer cells in the area that is being treated


Is radiotherapy given internally or externally?

Can be either


What is done in external radiotherapy?

High-energy x-rays are aimed at the affected area using a large machine


What is done in internal radiotherapy?

Radioactive material is placed inside the body


Can normal cells be damaged by radiotherapy?



What is the result of normal cells be damaged by radiotherapy?

Can cause side effects


How does the effect of radiotherapy differ in normal cells compared to cancer cells?

Cancer cells cannot repair themselves after radiotherapy, but normal cells can


What is it called when chemotherapy is given alongside radiotherapy?

Chemoradiation, or chemoradiotherapy


What effect might chemotherapy drugs have on radiotherapy?

May make cancer cells more sensitive to chemotherapy


What is the down side of giving chemotherapy and radiotherapy together?

Can make the side effects of treatment worse


What are the main types of radiotherapy?

- External beam radiotherapy
- Internal radiotherapy


What are the types of external beam radiotherapy?

- Conformal radiotherapy
- Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)
- Image-guided radiotherapy
- 4C radiotherapy
- Stereotactic radiotherapy
- Total body irradiation
- Intraoperative radiotherapy


What does conformal radiotherapy use?

A device inside the radiotherapy machine to shape the radiotherapy beams to fit the treatment area


What is conformal radiotherapy used to treat?

Many types of cancer


What does IMRT do?

Shapes the radiotherapy beams, and allows different doses of radiotherapy to be given to different parts of the treatment area


What is the advantage of IMRT?

It means lower doses of radiotherapy are given to healthy tissue surrounding the tumour


What is the importance of the reduction in radiotherapy to healthy tissue around in the tumour in IMRT?

- It reduces the risk of immediate and long-term side effects
- May allow higher doses of radiotherapy to be given to the tumour


What is the result of IMRT having a reduced risk of damage to healthy tissue and side effects on the tumours is used to treat?

It is often use to treat tumours that are close to important organs and structures


What kind of cancers is IMRT mainly used to treat?

- Breast cancer
- Head and neck cancer
- Anal cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Bladder cancer
- Gynaecological cancer
- Lung cancer

dunno why i wrote cancer after every single one lol obvs its treating cancer its in the cancer care deck


What is volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT)?

A newer way of giving IMRT, where the radiotherapy moves around the person while treatment is being given


What is the advantage of VMAT?

- Shortens treatment time
- Uses lower dose of radiation


What is image-guided radiotherapy?

Where images are taken just before each treatment


What is the purpose of image-guided radiotherapy taking images just before each treatment?

It allows for comparison with images taken during the planning scan, and adjustment of to the treatment area


What is the advantage of adjusting the treatment area with image-guided radiotherapy?

It means it is very precide


Why is image guided radiotherapy helpful?

Because some tumours can shrink in size, or change in shape or position, during or between treatment


Give an example of a cancer that might change in shape or position during or between treatments

Prostate or cervical tumours can change depending on if the patient has a full bladder


What does 4D radiotherapy use?

A radiotherapy machine that takes images during the treatment


What is the purpose of 4D radiotherapy?

It shows any movement of the tumour, which is then used to adjust the radiotherapy treatment area during treatment


What is the purpose of 4D radiotherapy?

it means that if the tumour moves, it's possible to make sure that it's fully treated