Thyroid Cancer Flashcards Preview

Cancer Care > Thyroid Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thyroid Cancer Deck (114)
Loading flashcards...
1

How common is thyroid cancer compared to other endocrine cancers?

It is the most common cancer of the endocrine system

2

How common is thyroid cancer compared to all other cancers?

It is a relatively uncommon malignancy

3

What is the incidence of thyroid nodules in the general population?

Approx 5%

4

What gender are thyroid nodules more common in?

Women (2.5 : 1 female to male ratio)

5

What is the prevalence of thyroid cancer in a solitary nodule or in a multi-nodular thyroid?

10-20%

6

What increases the prevalence of thyroid cancer in a solitary nodule or multi-nodular thyroid?

Irradiation to the neck

7

What are the most common types of thyroid cancer in the young?

-Papillary
-Follicular
-Medullary

8

What is the most common type of thyroid cancer in the elderly?

-Anaplastic

9

What geographical locations have a higher incidence of thyroid cancer?

Regions that were exposed to the Chernobyl disaster, or Japanese populations following atomic bomb detonations

10

What are the risk factors for thyroid cancer?

-Benign thyroid conditions
-Radiation exposure

11

What benign thyroid conditions can increase the risk of thyroid cancer?

-Goitre
-Thyroiditis
-Thyroid adenomas

12

What might cause radiation exposure to the thyroid?

-Treatment for childhood cancer
-High levels after environmental incidents, such as the Chernobyl disaster

13

What increases the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radiation?

Low levels of iodine

14

On what basis are thyroid cancers classified?

Morphologically

15

What are the morphological classifications of thyroid cancer?

-Papillary
-Follicular
-Anaplastic
-Hurthle cell
-Medullary cell
-Lymphoma

16

What morphological classifications of thyroid cancer are considered to be 'differentiated'?

-Papillary
-Follicular

17

What % of cases of thyroid cancer are differentiated thyroid cancers?

90%

18

What mutations are associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma?

-BRAF
-Overexpression of cyclin D1

19

What % of papillary thyroid carcinomas are associated with BRAF mutations?

40%

20

What signalling pathway may be disrupted in papillary and anaplastic cancers?

pRb signalling pathway

21

Why might the pRb signalling pathway be disrupted in anaplastic thyroid cancers?

Due to upregulation of E2F1

22

What cells do papillary thyroid tumours arise from?

Thyroid follicular cells

23

Describe the distribution of papillary thyroid tumours

They are unilateral in most cases, and are often multifocal within a single thyroid lobe

24

How big are papillary thyroid tumours?

They vary in size, from microscopic cancers to large cancers

25

What might large papillary thyroid tumours invade into?

-The thyroid capsule
-Contiguous structures

26

How do papillary thyroid tumours metastasise?

They tend to invade the lymphatics

Vascular invasion and haematogenous spread is uncommon

27

Describe the spread of follicular carcinoma?

Although mostly encapsulated, it commonly has microscopic vascular and capsular invasion

28

Is there lymph node involvement in follicular thyroid carcinoma?

There is usually no lymph node involvement

29

What can follicular thyroid carcinoma be difficult to distinguish from?

It's benign counterpart, follicular adenoma

30

Why can follicular thyroid carcinoma be difficult to distinguish from follicular adenoma?

As the distinction is made based on the presence or absence of capsular or vascular invasion, which cannot be evaluated by FNA