Flashcards in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Deck (88)
Is NHL common?
How many cases of NHL are there per year in the UK?
Which gender is NHL more common in?
What is the median age of presentation for all subtypes of NHL?
What are the most common types of NHL seen in children and young adults?
- High-grade lymphoblastic
- Small non-cleaved cell
Are low grade NHL more common in the young or old?
Old (37% of cases in 35-64, but 16% of cases below 35)
What appears to influence the development of NHL in specific areas?
Certain geographical factors
What kind of NHLs are affected by certain endemic geographical factors?
- Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-1 (HLTV-1)-associated lymphoma/leukaemia
- Burkitt's lymphoma
- Follicular lymphoma
- Peripheral T-cell lymphoma
Where does HLTV-1-associated T cell lymphoma/leukaemia occur most frequently?
Where is Burkitt's lymphoma more common?
Africa, particularly Nigeria and Tanzania
Describe the geographical distribution of follicular lymphoma?
More common in North America and Europe, but rare in Caribbean, Africa, China, Japan, and Middle East
Describe the geographical distribution of peripheral T-cell lymphoma?
More common in Europe and China
In whom is there a significantly higher incidence of primary CNS lymphoma?
Patients with HIV infection and immunosuppression
What is important in the pathogenesis of NHL?
Non-random chromosomal and molecular rearrangements
What does the chromosomal and molecular rearrangements in NGL correspond with?
What is the most common chromosomal finding in NHL?
What does t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation produce?
A juxtaposition of the BCL2 apoptoptic inhibitor oncogene to the heavy-chain region of the immunoglobulin locus
What NHL is t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation most common in?
- Follicular lymphoma (85% of cases have this mutation)
- High grade tumours (28% have it)
What chromosomal abnormality is associated with mantle cell lymphoma?
What does the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation result in?
Over-expression of BCL1
What is BCL1?
A cell cycle control gene on chromosome 11q13
What chromosomal abnormality is frequently seen in high-grade small non-cleaved cell lymphomas?
Chromosomal translocations involving 8q24
What do chromosomal translocations involving 8q24 lead to?
What viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NHL?
What type of NHL is EBV associated with?
What kind of NHL is HTLV-1 associated with?
Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma
How does HCV increase the risk of NHL?
It predisposes B cells to malignant transformation by enhancing signal transduction in binding to CD81
What is the classic presentation of NHL?
- Systemic B symptoms
What are systemic B symptoms?
- Weight loss
- Night sweats