Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Deck (88)
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1

Is NHL common?

Relatively

2

How many cases of NHL are there per year in the UK?

7500

3

Which gender is NHL more common in?

Men

4

What is the median age of presentation for all subtypes of NHL?

50 years

5

What are the most common types of NHL seen in children and young adults?

- High-grade lymphoblastic
- Small non-cleaved cell

6

Are low grade NHL more common in the young or old?

Old (37% of cases in 35-64, but 16% of cases below 35)

7

What appears to influence the development of NHL in specific areas?

Certain geographical factors

8

What kind of NHLs are affected by certain endemic geographical factors?

- Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-1 (HLTV-1)-associated lymphoma/leukaemia
- Burkitt's lymphoma
- Follicular lymphoma
- Peripheral T-cell lymphoma

9

Where does HLTV-1-associated T cell lymphoma/leukaemia occur most frequently?

- Japan
- Caribbean

10

Where is Burkitt's lymphoma more common?

Africa, particularly Nigeria and Tanzania

11

Describe the geographical distribution of follicular lymphoma?

More common in North America and Europe, but rare in Caribbean, Africa, China, Japan, and Middle East

12

Describe the geographical distribution of peripheral T-cell lymphoma?

More common in Europe and China

13

In whom is there a significantly higher incidence of primary CNS lymphoma?

Patients with HIV infection and immunosuppression

14

What is important in the pathogenesis of NHL?

Non-random chromosomal and molecular rearrangements

15

What does the chromosomal and molecular rearrangements in NGL correspond with?

The immunophenotype

16

What is the most common chromosomal finding in NHL?

t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation

17

What does t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation produce?

A juxtaposition of the BCL2 apoptoptic inhibitor oncogene to the heavy-chain region of the immunoglobulin locus

18

What NHL is t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation most common in?

- Follicular lymphoma (85% of cases have this mutation)
- High grade tumours (28% have it)

19

What chromosomal abnormality is associated with mantle cell lymphoma?

t(11;14)(q13;q32)

20

What does the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation result in?

Over-expression of BCL1

21

What is BCL1?

A cell cycle control gene on chromosome 11q13

22

What chromosomal abnormality is frequently seen in high-grade small non-cleaved cell lymphomas?

Chromosomal translocations involving 8q24

23

What do chromosomal translocations involving 8q24 lead to?

c-myc deregulation

24

What viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NHL?

- EBV
- HTLV-1
- HCV

25

What type of NHL is EBV associated with?

Burkitts lymphoma

26

What kind of NHL is HTLV-1 associated with?

Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma

27

How does HCV increase the risk of NHL?

It predisposes B cells to malignant transformation by enhancing signal transduction in binding to CD81

28

What is the classic presentation of NHL?

- Systemic B symptoms
- Fatigue
- Weakness

29

What are systemic B symptoms?

- Fever
- Weight loss
- Night sweats

30

At what stage can the classical presentation of NHL occur?

More common in intermediate- and high grade tumours, but may be present in all stages and tumour subtypes