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Flashcards in Gastric Cancer Deck (49)
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1

What is the incidence of gastric cancer?

23/100,000

2

When is gastric cancer most common?

50's

3

What is the male to female ratio of gastric cancer?

M:F = 2:1

4

Where is gastric cancer more common?

Japan
Eastern Europe
China
S. America

5

What are the risk factors for gastric cancer?

Atrophic gastritis
Diet
Smoking
Blood group A
Low socio-economic background
Familial
Partial gastrectomy

6

How can atrophic gastritis increase the risk of gastric cancer?

It can cause intestinal metaplasia

7

What can cause atrophic gastritis?

Pernicious anaemia
H. Pylori

8

What dietary factors increase the risk of gastric cancer?

Increases nitrates

9

What foods have high nitrates?

Foods that are smoked, pickled, or salted

10

How do nitrates increase the risk of gastric cancer?

Nitrates form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the GIT

11

How can gastric cancer risk be familial?

If there is a familial E. cadherin abnormality

12

What kind of cancers are gastric cancers?

Mainly adenocarcinomas

13

Where are gastric cancers usually located?

On gastric antrum

14

What gastric cancer might H. Pylori lead to?

MALToma

15

On what basis can gastric cancers be classified?

Depth of invasion
Microscopic appearance
Bormann Classification

16

Where do early gastric cancers invade?

The mucosa or submucosa

17

Where do late gastric cancers invade?

Muscularis propria

18

What are the classifications of gastric cancers based on their microscopic appearance?

Intestinal
Diffuse

19

How do intestinal gastric cancers appear?

Bulky, glandular tumours with heaped ulceration

20

How do diffuse gastric cancers appear?

Infiltrate, with signet ring cell morphology

21

What is the Bormann classification of gastric cancers?

1. Polypoid/fungating
2. Excavating
3. Ulcerating and raised
4. Linitis plastica

22

How does linitis plastica appear?

Leather-bottle like thickening, with flat rugae

23

What are the symptoms of gastric cancer?

Weight loss and anorexia
Dyspepsia
Dysphagia
Nausea and vomiting

24

What is meant by dyspepsia?

Epigastric or retrosternal pain/discomfort

25

What is the problem with the symptoms of gastric cancer?

They usually present late

26

What are the signs of gastric cancer?

Anaemia
Epigastric mass
Jaundice
Ascites
Hepatomegaly
Virchow's node
Acanthosis nigricans

27

What are the complications of gastric cancer?

Perforation
Upper GI bleed
Gastric outlet obstruction

28

How might an upper GI bleed caused by gastric cancer present?

Haematemesis
Melaena

29

How might gastric cancer spread?

Within the stomach
Direct invasion
Lymphatic
Blood
Transcoelomic

30

What develops when gastric cancer spreads within the stomach?

Linitis plastica