Flashcards in Gastric Cancer Deck (49)
What is the incidence of gastric cancer?
When is gastric cancer most common?
What is the male to female ratio of gastric cancer?
M:F = 2:1
Where is gastric cancer more common?
What are the risk factors for gastric cancer?
Blood group A
Low socio-economic background
How can atrophic gastritis increase the risk of gastric cancer?
It can cause intestinal metaplasia
What can cause atrophic gastritis?
What dietary factors increase the risk of gastric cancer?
What foods have high nitrates?
Foods that are smoked, pickled, or salted
How do nitrates increase the risk of gastric cancer?
Nitrates form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the GIT
How can gastric cancer risk be familial?
If there is a familial E. cadherin abnormality
What kind of cancers are gastric cancers?
Where are gastric cancers usually located?
On gastric antrum
What gastric cancer might H. Pylori lead to?
On what basis can gastric cancers be classified?
Depth of invasion
Where do early gastric cancers invade?
The mucosa or submucosa
Where do late gastric cancers invade?
What are the classifications of gastric cancers based on their microscopic appearance?
How do intestinal gastric cancers appear?
Bulky, glandular tumours with heaped ulceration
How do diffuse gastric cancers appear?
Infiltrate, with signet ring cell morphology
What is the Bormann classification of gastric cancers?
3. Ulcerating and raised
4. Linitis plastica
How does linitis plastica appear?
Leather-bottle like thickening, with flat rugae
What are the symptoms of gastric cancer?
Weight loss and anorexia
Nausea and vomiting
What is meant by dyspepsia?
Epigastric or retrosternal pain/discomfort
What is the problem with the symptoms of gastric cancer?
They usually present late
What are the signs of gastric cancer?
What are the complications of gastric cancer?
Upper GI bleed
Gastric outlet obstruction
How might an upper GI bleed caused by gastric cancer present?
How might gastric cancer spread?
Within the stomach