Flashcards in Endometrial Cancer Deck (95)
What is endometrial cancer?
A cancer arising from the lining of the uterus
How common is endometrial cancer?
The 4th most common cancer in women in the UK
How many new cases of endometrial cancer are there each year in the UK?
How many deaths are caused by endometrial cancer each year in the UK?
What is the median age of endometrial cancer?
What % of women with endometrial cancer are over 50?
Where is endometrial cancer more common?
What is the most common histological type of endometrial cancer?
What % of endometrial cancer is adenocarcinoma?
What are the two main types of endometrial cancer?
- Type 1
- Type 2
What is Type 1 endometrial cancer?
Oestrogen dependent endometrioid
What is Type 2 endometrial cancer?
Oestrogen independent non-endometrioid
What are the risk factors for endometrial cancer?
- Prolonged periods of unopposed oestrogen
- Menopause past 52
- Endometrial hyperplasia
What is the main risk factor for endometrial cancer?
Prolonged unopposed oestrogen
What can cause prolonged periods of unopposed oestrogen?
- Anovulatory cycles where corpus luteum does not mature and secrete progesterone
What is endometrial hyperplasia?
Excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium
Why is endometrial hyperplasia a significant finding?
It is a significant risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer
What is essential in women with endometrial hyperplasia?
Careful monitoring and treatment
What causes most cases of endometrial hyperplasia?
High levels of oestrogen combined with insufficient progesterone
Why is sufficient progesterone important in preventing endometrial cancer and hyperplasia?
It normally counteracts the pro-proliferative effects of oestrogen on the tissues
What are the classifications of endometrial hyperplasia?
- Hyperplasia without atypia
- Atypical hyperplasia
Which type of endometrial hyperplasia is considered a pre-malignant condition of the uterus?
How does endometrial hyperplasia normally present?
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding
- Sometimes vaginal discharge
What types of abnormal vaginal bleeding may occur in endometrial hyperplasia?
- Intermenstrual bleeding
- Irregular bleeding
- Post-menopausal bleeding
How is endometrial hyperplasia definitively diagnosed?
How can biopsy to test for endometrial hyperplasia be obtained?
- Outpatient endometrial sampling with pipelle biopsy
- Hysteroscopy and curettage biopsy
When is an endometrial curettage biopsy preferred to pipelle biopsy?
When there are polyps and other benign lesions
What investigation may be useful in identifying potential endometrial hyperplasia prior to biopsy?
Can an endometrial biopsy be performed regardless of transvaginal USS results?
Yes, if clinical suspicion is high