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Flashcards in Common Conditions of the Eye Deck (35)
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1

What is a cataract?

An opacification of the lens

2

Why do cataracts develop?

Older fibres never shed, compacted in middle
Absorbs harmful UV rays and get damaged

3

What does cataracts initially look like?

Spoke like opacities

4

What type of cataracts occur during childhood?

Sutural
Zonular

5

Why must childhood cataracts be treated aggressively?

Brain will suppress the image formed on the retina in that eye, will adjust to lower image acuity

6

How are cataracts treated?

Surgery (cataractous lens removed by emulsification, plastic lens placed in capsular bag)

7

What is glaucoma?

Raised intraocular pressure

8

What are the 2 types of glaucoma?

Primary open angle glaucoma
Angle closure glaucoma

9

What are the consequences of raised intraocular pressure?

Pressure on optic nerve head and nerve fibres on retina surface, die out causing altered field of vision or blindness

10

How are primary open angle glaucomas managed?

Eye drops decrease pressure
Laser trabeculectomy
Trabeculectomy surgery

11

What are the symptoms of angle closure glaucoma?

Sudden onset
Pain
Vision loss/blurred
Headaches (often confused as migraines)

12

What are the clinical signs of angle closure glaucoma?

Red eye
Cornea often opaque
Pupil mid dilated
IOP severely raised

13

Why does the angle close to cause glaucoma?

Periphery of iris crowds around angle, outflow is obstructed
Iris sticks to pupillary border which prevents reaching AC

14

How do you manage an acute episode of glaucoma?

Decrease IOP with IV infusion, constructor eye drops, steroid eye drops
Iridotomy

15

What type of epithelium is present on the cornea?

Stratified squamous non-keartinised

16

What are the causes of corneal ulcers?

Trauma
Corneal degenerations/dystrophy
Viral/bacterial/fungal infections

17

How do corneal dystrophies present?

Decreased vision

18

What is a lattice (stromal) dystrophies?

Deposition of amyloid material in corneal stroma

19

How do lattice dystrophies present?

Eye irritation
Photosensitivity
Pain
Blurred vision

20

What is a Fuch's endothelial dystrophy?

Destruction and death of endothelial cells causing progressive bilateral oedema

21

How are dystrophies managed?

Symptom mangement
Corneal transplant in later stages

22

What is the surgical benefit of corneal transplantation?

Avascularity means lesser chance of foreign antigens from graft being recognised by recipient so lesser chance of rejection

23

What is uveitis?

Inflammation of uvea

24

Where would you find the different types of uveitis?

Anterior - Iris with or without ciliary body
Intermediate - ciliary body
Posterior - Choroid

25

What are the causes of uveitis?

TB
Ankylosing spondylosis
Autoimmune causes

26

What happens in anterior uveitis?

Uvea leaks plasma and white blood cells into the aqueous humour

27

What is seen on examination of an anterior uveitis?

Hazy anterior chamber
Cells deposited at back of the cornea

28

What are the symptoms of anterior uveitis>

Eye is red, painful
Visual loss

29

What is seen on examination of intermediate and posterior uveitis?

Hazy vitreous

30

What are the symptoms intermediate/posterior uveitis?

Hazy vision