Flashcards in Infections of the Nervous System Deck (38)
What is meningitis?
Inflammation and infection of meninges
What are the common symptoms of meningitis?
Altered mental state
Petechial skin rash
What are the bacterial causes of meningitis?
What is the viral cause of meningitis?
What is encephalitis?
Inflammation and infection of brain substances
What are the clinical symptoms of encephalitis?
Depressed conscious level
What are the investigations for meningitis?
What are the investigations for encephalitis?
What are the antibodies associated with auto-immune encephalitis?
Anti-voltage gated potassium channel
What are the CSF findings for bacterial meningitis?
Opening pressure increased
High cell count, mainly neutrophils
Glucose reduced or zero
What are the csf findings for viral meningitis or encephalitis?
Opening pressure normal or increased
Cell count high, mainly lymphocytes
Protein slightly increased
What is the specific investigation for herpes simplex encephalitis?
Lab diagnosis by PCR of CSF for viral DNA
What is the treatment for herpes simplex encephalitis?
Where is the herpes simplex virus found latent after primary infection?
Trigeminal and sacral ganglion
What is the significance of arbovirus encephalitides?
Relevant to travel history, common in sub/tropics
What is a brain abscess?
Localized area of pus within the brain
What are the clinical features of a brain abscess or empyema?
Signs of raised ICP (depressed conscious level, papilloedema)
What are the causes of brain abscess and empyema?
Penetrating head injury
Spread from adjacent infection
Blood borne infection (bacterial endocarditis)
What are the investigations for brain abscess or empyema?
Biopsy/ drainage of pus
What is the management of a brain abscess?
Penicillin or ceftriaxone to cover streps
Metronidazole for anaerobes
What are the common organisms responsible for brain abscess?
What are the HIV indicator illnesses associated with the brain?
Aseptic meningitis/ encephalitis
Primary cerebral lymphoma
What are the diagnostics for HIV indicator illnesses?
India ink, cryptococcal antigen
Toxoplasmosis serology (IgG)
JC virus PCR
What are the investigations for Lyme disease?
Range of serological tests
PCR of CSF
Nerve condition studies
What is the treatment for Lyme disease?
Prolonged antibiotic treatment (IV ceftriaxone, oral doxycycline)
What are the symptoms of Lyme disease?
What are the clinical findings for neurosyphilis?
CSF lymphocytes increased
Evidence of intrathecal antibody production
What is the treatment for neurosyphilis?
High dose penicillin
What part of the CNS does poliomyelitis infect?
Anterior horn cells of lower motor neurones