Intracranial Haemorrhage Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Intracranial Haemorrhage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intracranial Haemorrhage Deck (15)
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1

What are the causes of traumatic intracranial haemorrhage?

Extradural haemorrhage
Subdural haematoma
Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage
Intra-parenchymal contusions

2

What are the non traumatic intracranial haemorrhage?

Subarachnoid haemorrhage
Intracerebral haemorrhage
Vascular malformations

3

What are the causes of subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Aneurysm
Trauma
Vasculitis
Carotid/vertebral artery dissection
Arteriovenous malformations

4

What are the risk factors associated with aneurysmal SAH?

Hypertension
Smoking
Cocaine
Family history

5

How do aneurysmal SAH present?

Headache (worst imaginable, thunderclap)
Meninigsm (nausea, vomiting, neck stiffness)
Focal neurological deficits
Seizures
ECG changes
Reduced level of consciousness

6

What are some of the complications of SAH?

Re-bleeding from aneurysm
Vasospasm
Hydrocephalus
Seizures Electrolyte abnormalities

7

What is vasospasm?

Spasm of cerebral arteries presenting with blood in subarachnoid space

8

How is vasospasm diagnosed?

Transcranial doppler
CT angiogram

9

How is vasospasm prevented?

Nimodipine for first 3 weeks following SAH
Keep well hydrated

10

What are the risk factors of intracerebral haemorrhage?

Hypertension
Increasing age
Substance abuse
Underlying lesion

11

How does intracerebral haemorrhage present?

Contralateral weakness of face/arm/leg
Dsyphasia
Headache
Nausea, vomiting
Deteriorating conscious level

12

How is intracerebral haemorrhage diagnosed?

CT

13

What is the treatment for intracerebral haemorrhage?

Correct blood clotting (reverse warfarin)
Remove clot
Control blood pressure

14

What is an arteriovenous malformation?

Abnorma connection between arteries and veins

15

What is the treatment for arteriovenous malformation?

Surgical excision
Endovascular treatment
Focused radiotherapy