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Flashcards in Physiology and Pathophysiology or Pain Deck (24)
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1

What is pain?

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience which we primarily associate with tissue damage or describe in terms of such damage or both

2

What is nociception?

The detection of tissue damage by specialised transducers connected to A-delta and C-fibres

3

What are the basic steps in the pathway of pain?

Periphery, Spinal cord, Brain, Modulation

4

What are nociceptors?

Free nerve endings of A-delta and C-fibres that respond to thermal, chemical, mechanical noxious stimuli

5

Where are primary afferents located and synapse?

Cell body in dorsal root ganglion
Synapse at spinal cord

6

What is the difference between A and C fibres?

A fibres conduct sharp pain
C fibres conduct dull pain

7

What type of tract in the spinal dorsal horn takes charge of pain?

Lateral spinothalamic tract

8

Where does the spinothalamic tract arise?

Rexed lamina 2 and 5

9

Where does pain perception occur in the brain?

Somatosensory cortex

10

What change occurs in the nociceptor with allodynia?

Decreased threshold for response

11

What change occurs in the nociceptor with hyperalgesia?

Exaggerated response to normal and supernormal stimuli

12

What change occurs in the nociceptor with spontaneous pain?

Spontaneous activity in nerve fibres

13

What is central sensitisation?

Response of second order neurons in the CNS to normal input both noxious and non-noxious

14

What are the 3 components of central sensitisation?

Wind-up
Classical
Long-term potentiation

15

What are the key points of wind up in central sensitisation?

Only involves activated synapses
Homosynaptic activity dependent progressive in response to neurons
Manifests over courses of stimuli an terminates with stimuli

16

What are the key points of classical in central sensitisation?

Involves opening new synapses
Heterosynaptic activity dependent plasticity
Immediate onset
Outlast the initial stimuli duration

17

What are the key points of long term potentiation in central sensitisation?

Involves mainly activated synapses
Occurs primarily for very intense stimuli

18

What are the differences between acute and chronic pain?

Acute: presence of noxious stimuli, usually nociceptive
Chronic: Noxious stimuli not essential, nociceptive, neuropathic or mixed

19

What is neuropathic pain?

Pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the tomato-sensory nervous system

20

What can be used to treat neuropathic pain?

Anti-depressants and anticonvulsants

21

What are the treatment options for pain associated with transduction?

NSAIDs
Ice
Rest
LA blocks

22

What are the treatment options or pain associated with transmission?

Nerve blocks
Opioids
Anticonvulsants
Cordotomy
DREZ

23

What are the treatment options for pain associated with perception?

Education
Cognitive behavioural therapy
Distraction
Relaxation
Graded motor imagery
Mirror box therapy

24

What are the treatment options for pain associated with descending modulation?

Placebos
Opioids
Antidepressants
Spinal cord stimulation