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Flashcards in Degenerative Diseases of the CNS Deck (21)
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1

What are the common features of neurodegenerative diseases?

Largely unknown aetiology
Gradual progression
Usually late onset
Neuronal loss

2

What is dementia?

Progressive impairment of multiple domains of cognitive function in alert patient leading to loss of acquired skills and interference in occupational and social role

3

What are the causes of dementia?

Alzheimer's
Vascular
Lewy body
Frontotemporal

4

What are the mimics of dementia?

Hydrocephalus
Tumour
Depression (pseudodepression)

5

What are the treatable reasons which cause dementia?

B12 deficiency
Thyroid disease
HIV
Syphilis

6

What investigations are used to diagnose dementia?

Bloods
CT/MRI
CSF
EEG
Functional imaging
Genetics

7

How is cognitive function examined?

Screening tests ( mini mental, Montreal)
Memory, attention, language, visuospatial, behaviour, emotion, executive function, aspraxias

8

What type of dementia is associated with Alzheimer's disease?

Temporo-parietal dementia

9

What clinical signs are associated with Alzheimer's disease?

Early memory disturbance
Language and visuospatial problems
Personality preserved until later

10

What affects are observed with fronto-temporal dementia?

Early change in dementia/ behaviour
Often change in eating habits
Early dysphasia
Memory/visuospatial relatively preserved

11

What are the non pharmacological symptomatic treatments for dementia?

Occupational therapy
Information and support, dementia services
Social work/ respite/ placement

12

What aspects of dementia can be treated pharmacologically?

Insomnia
Behaviour
Depression

13

What are the specific treatments for Alzheimer's?

Cholinesterase inhibitors
NMDA antagonist

14

What are the different types of cholinesterase inhibitors?

Donepezil
Rivastigmine
Galantamine

15

What is an example on an NMDA antagonist?

Mematine

16

How is Parkinson's disease diagnosed?

Bradykinesia
Rigidity
Tremor
Postural instability (MUST HAVE AT LEAST 2)

17

What are the causes of Parkinson's?

Idiopathic (dementia with Lewy bodies)
Drug induced (dopamine antagonists)
Vascular parkinsonism

18

What functional imaging is used within Parkinson's?

Dopamine transporter SPECT

19

What are some of the drug induced complications of Parkinson's treatment?

Motor fluctuations (levodopa wears off)
Dyskinesias (involuntary movements)
Hallucinations, impulse control

20

What are some of the non drug induced complications of Parkinson's treatment?

Depression
Dementia
Speech, swallow,
Balance
Autonomic (BP, bladder, bowel)

21

What are some of later treatments offered for Parkinson's?

Deep brain stimulation
Continuous infusion of apomorphine or Duodopa