Flashcards in Degenerative Diseases of the CNS Deck (21)
What are the common features of neurodegenerative diseases?
Largely unknown aetiology
Usually late onset
What is dementia?
Progressive impairment of multiple domains of cognitive function in alert patient leading to loss of acquired skills and interference in occupational and social role
What are the causes of dementia?
What are the mimics of dementia?
What are the treatable reasons which cause dementia?
What investigations are used to diagnose dementia?
How is cognitive function examined?
Screening tests ( mini mental, Montreal)
Memory, attention, language, visuospatial, behaviour, emotion, executive function, aspraxias
What type of dementia is associated with Alzheimer's disease?
What clinical signs are associated with Alzheimer's disease?
Early memory disturbance
Language and visuospatial problems
Personality preserved until later
What affects are observed with fronto-temporal dementia?
Early change in dementia/ behaviour
Often change in eating habits
Memory/visuospatial relatively preserved
What are the non pharmacological symptomatic treatments for dementia?
Information and support, dementia services
Social work/ respite/ placement
What aspects of dementia can be treated pharmacologically?
What are the specific treatments for Alzheimer's?
What are the different types of cholinesterase inhibitors?
What is an example on an NMDA antagonist?
How is Parkinson's disease diagnosed?
Postural instability (MUST HAVE AT LEAST 2)
What are the causes of Parkinson's?
Idiopathic (dementia with Lewy bodies)
Drug induced (dopamine antagonists)
What functional imaging is used within Parkinson's?
Dopamine transporter SPECT
What are some of the drug induced complications of Parkinson's treatment?
Motor fluctuations (levodopa wears off)
Dyskinesias (involuntary movements)
Hallucinations, impulse control
What are some of the non drug induced complications of Parkinson's treatment?
Autonomic (BP, bladder, bowel)