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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Test Deck (51):

Who identified how many agricultural regions and when?

In 1936 Derwent Whittlesey identified 11 main agricultural regions


How many agricultural regions are important to LDCs/ developing countries and how many are important to MDCs/ developed countries?

5 are important to developing countries and 6 are important in developed countries


What are the 5 types agriculture in LDCs/ developing countries?

Shifting cultivation, pastoral nomadism, intensive subsistence farming (wet rice dominant), intensive subsistence (crops other than wet rice), and plantation farming


Describe shifting cultivation

It's also called "slash and burn" and land is cleared/swidden every 2 years before they move to another field. It's practiced on the largest percentage of land worldwide. Ownership is often communal.


What type of agriculture is often communal?

Shifting cultivation / slash and burn


What type of agriculture is practiced on the largest percentage of land worldwide?

Shifting cultivation/ slash and burn


What are the negative effects of shifting cultivation?

Deforestation, pollution, and loss of biodiversity due to the fact that land has to be cleared every 2-3 years.


What factors determine what is produced, where it's produced, and who produces it?

Climate, culture, economics (MDCs and LDCs), and political situation


What is pastoral nomadism and what is a specific type?

Pastoral nomadism is the herding of domesticated animals and is mostly in the middle east / north africa.Transhumance is a type of pastoral nomadism that involves seasonal migration.


Why is pastoral nomadism dying out?

It's dying out due to technology, urbanism, and government pressures


What are some negative effects of pastoral nomadism?

Territorial disputes, competition for resources, and desertification due to overgrazing and human activity


Where is shifting cultivation typically practiced?

It's practiced in the rainforests of south america, africa, and southeast asia


What is intensive subsistence farming (wet rice dominant)?

It's the intensive use of a small area of farmland. It often uses double cropping, where 2 crops are grown in 1 year on the same plot of land.


Where is intensive subsistence (wet rice) farming typically practiced?

It's common in south and southeast asia and is common in densely populated areas. It's practiced by the biggest number of people worldwide.


What type of farming is practiced by the largest number of people in the world?

Intensive subsistence (wet rice dominant)


What is intensive subsistence (wet rice not dominant) farming and what is a drawback?

It's the farming of crops (usually wheat and barley) that involves crop rotation. There typically isn't enough precipitation in the summer/ winter - too harsh [of a climate].


Where is intensive subsistence (wet rice not dominant) farming typically practiced?

Central India and Northeastern China


What are some negative effects of intensive subsistence farming?

It's intensive so there's a significant impact on humans and the environment. One small problem could lead to widespread famine. It also causes health issues due to exposure to animal waste and vulnerability to disease.


Where is plantation farming typically found?

It's typically found in tropical regions such as Latin America, Africa, and Asia. It is common in LDCs, but it often owned by European and U.S. companies


What products are farmed on plantation farms?

Cotton, sugarcane, coffee, coco, bananas, tobacco, and tea


What are some negative effects of plantation farming?

It's usually in sparsely populated areas, which can cause isolation for the workers who are brought in and housed on site. It inefficiently uses land since only 1 crop is grown (the most profitable). Profits often go to international corporations and workers often have poor living and working conditions. Child slavery is common.


What are the 6 main types of agriculture practiced in MDCs?

Mixed crop/ livestock farming, dairy, grain farming, ranching, mediterranean, and commercial gardening/ truck farming


Where is mixed crop/ livestock farming most common and what is grown?

It's most common in the US and Europe. The midwestern US "corn belt". Crop rotation is used to grow corn, soybeans, and wheat.


Where is dairy farming most common and why?

The "milkshed"- the producing region that supplies to the closest market. The farther away from the market the more likely the milk is to be sold for processing. Common outside heavily populated areas due to demand.


Where is grain farming most common and what is grown?

Grain is grown- the seeds from wheat, barely, oats, etc. It's sold to manufacturers to produce the food we eat. Grown in the "wheat belt" in the Northwestern U.S.


What is ranching and what is the difference between it and pastoral nomadism?

It's the commercial grazing of livestock. It's different from pastoral nomadism because the difference is that they want to be part of the link in the meat processing industry. Due to urbanization, feedlots are more often used than they used to be.


Where is mediterranean agriculture most common and what is grown?

There must be a specific climate. It can be found in Southern Europe, North Africa, Chile, South Africa, California, and Australia. Olives and grapes are the most commonly grown.


What are the 6 drawbacks to agriculture in MDCs?

It tends to use more land, there is a larger impact on the environment (large farms, pesticides), water consumption is high, large use of natural resources (oil and fuel), processed food (preservatives, high calorie), and the access to organic and healthful foods is sometimes limited and/or expensive.


What is a food desert?

An area defined by the USDA as a place with little or no access to fresh, affordable food (usually between 1-10 miles)


Where are food deserts?

Typically in areas with higher obesity rates.


What is an example of a food desert?

Detroit- all of the grocery stores left the city so residents started to grow food in vacant lots and were basically forced to eat fast food


What is the "Local Food" movement?

"Farm to table". It's a recent trend to buy local and to know where your food comes from. It's often organic in order to limit the amount of pesticides and preservatives. It also helps support local small farmers.


What does "A portion of the crops is eaten by the wheels" mean?

That you have to spend money to make money. This is because back then it cost a lot to get products to the market.


Who said "A portion of the crops is eaten by the wheels" and in when?

German economist Johann Von Then in 1826


In the 1820s, what did von Thunen propose?

An agricultural land use model


What determines agricultural land use (what is grown/ produced)?

Bid rent


What is bid rent?

Location to the market and transportation costs


What land is most expensive (and why) according to von Thunen's model?

Land closest to the city is more productive and closer to the market therefore it's more expensive


Where can less productive land be found (according to von Thunen)?

Further out from the city, land is less productive and therefore cheaper


What do farmers consider when deciding what crops to grow?

Land costs and transportation costs


What factors have made von Thunen's model obsolete?

Technology, globalization, and urbanization improvements


What are some examples of speciality farming?

Dairy in California and fruits in South America


Why does von Thunen's Model still apply in LDCs?

Because of technology limitations


What is modern agriculture connected to?

The larger agribusiness


What is a commodity chain?

A series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution together, and resulting in a commodity that's then exchanged on the world market


When and where did the Green Revolution begin?

It began in 1943 in Mexico


Who began the Green Revolution?

Norman Borlaug


What are the 2 major goals of the Green Revolution?

1. To prevent massive famine in parts of the world. 2. Sustainable and efficient food production (Grow more food on the same/ less amount of land)


What are some strategies of the Green Revolution?

New varieties of high yield crops; double cropping; expanded use of pesticides, fertilization, irrigation, and GMOs; and the introduction of high tech machinery


Who did and who didn't benefit from the Green Revolution?

Most of Asia and Mexico benefited but Sub-Saharan Africa didn't really benefit


What are 5 problems with implementing Green Revolution agriculture changes in LDCs?

Fertilizer and technology is expensive, expanded use of pesticides can cause health issues, high fuel and water consumption, traditional societies usually resist change, these advances possibly contribute to population growth