Flashcards in Chapter 8 Test Deck (85):
Independence from control over its internal affairs by another state
List the 6 largest states by land area in order
Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, Australia
How many micro-states are recognized?
About 24, they're mostly islands
When was the UN established and why?
It was established in 1945 by the allies to help make peace and travel easier between countries
What types of countries joined the UN in 1955?
Mostly countries liberated by Nazi Germany
What types of countries joined the UN in the 1960s?
Mostly former African colonies of Britain and France
What types of countries joined the UN in the 1990s?
Micro-states and countries formed due to the breakup of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia
What are the 5 permanent members of the Security Council?
China, France, Russia, the UK, and the USA
What are 2 problems the UN faces?
1. Relies on individual countries for troops
2. Has trouble staying neutral
Give examples of a nation-state
Japan, Denmark, Egypt, Iceland, and Finland
The concept that ethnicities have a right to govern themselves, disregard current borders, and claim lost territory
Who is a nation defined by?
Only by its people
Define a state
An area organized into a internationally recognized political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over all its affairs
About how many states/ countries were there around WW2?
Only about 50
How many states/countries are there now?
Between 196-Just over 200
Why were there so few states during WW2?
Because before the war was over, most territory was controlled by colonial powers, but after the war many new states came into existance
What is an example of a non-self-governing state?
The western sahara
What are some states that have some, but not all, international recognition?
Palestine, Taiwan, Tibet, the Western Sahara
What is a quasi-state?
A territory that is legally tied to another state but isn't entirely independent
What's an example of a quasi-state?
Transnistria in Europe. Citizens there are citizens of Russia, Moldova, and Ukraine
What country declared independence after the break up of Yugoslavia?
What is the smallest state in the world?
The Vatican City
Define a micro-state and give an example
A state that's small in land area and/or population. Ex: Naru in the Pacific
Define a city-state and give examples
Monaco, Singapore, and Vatican City
What is the largest landmass in the world that isn't a sovereign state?
What does the Antarctic treaty prevent?
It prevents military action, new land claims, and taking advantage of Antartica's mineral resources and fresh water
What percent of the world's fresh water supply is in Antartica and what countries want it [the water]?
70%, and India, Mexico, and China want its water due to a booming population + urbanization
What is a nation?
A group of people that share a common ethnic bond and identity
Define a centripetal force
A force that helps unify a state/ hold a country together and brings people together
Define a centrifugal force
A force that tears people away, and often causes competition for recognition by minority ethnic groups
What are the two majority ethnic groups in Ukraine?
Ukrainian and Russian
What are the Baltic states that formed from the breakup of the Soviet Union?
Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia
What are the European states that formed from the breakup of the Soviet Union?
Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova
What are the Central Asian states that formed from the breakup of the Soviet Union?
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
The study of the shapes of states
Define a compact state and list examples
A smaller, often roundish or square country. Ex: Hungary and Poland
Define a proupted state and list examples
Usually a compact state with an extended arm of territory that serves a purpose. Ex: Afghanistan and Namibia. Afghanistan's proruption was designed to create a buffer between the Soviet Union and Pakistan
Define an elongated state and list examples
A very long state, typically with a large coastline. Ex: Chile
Define a Fragmented state and list examples
States that are broken either by water or other states. Ex: USA, Greece, Angola, Azerbaijan
Define a Perforated state and list examples
When are state has a hole or tear in it/ surrounds another state. Ex: South Africa is perforated by Lethoso, San Marino and the Vatican City perforate Italy.
What are some advantages and disadvantages to a compact state?
Pros: Capital is often centrally located and has easy access from all parts of the country. Usually relatively easy to defend.
Cons: Has less land for agriculture
What are some advantages and disadvantages to a Propted state?
Pros: Often creates a buffer between two other enemy states or gives the country access to resources
Cons: None that we talked about
What are some advantages and disadvantages to an Elongated state?
Pros: Huge coastline for shipping and trade
Cons: Can be difficult to defend and govern because it's too spread out, remote areas can be isolated and cause both communication and defense issues.
What are some advantages and disadvantages to a Fragmented state?
Pros: Different climates for agriculture and access to different resources off the main land
Cons: National unity, political control, and defense can be difficult
What are some advantages and disadvantages to a Perforated state?
Pros: Forces political diplomacy between the two countries
Cons: If the countries are at war then yeah not good
What do cartographers do to a boundary by drawing it on a map?
They delimit it
Define demarcating a boundry
To mark a boundary using fences, posts, etc
Define administrating a boundary
To determine how the boundary will be maintained and how goods and people will cross the boundary
What are the two types of boundaries?
Physical (the natural landscape) and Cultural (the cultural landscape)
What are the two types of cultural boundaries?
Geometric and Ethnic
What is a physical boundary and give examples
A boundary that generally follows an agreed upon feature of the natural landscape such as a mountain, river, etc. Example: Pyrenees mountains between Spain and France
What is a cultural boundary?
A boundary drawn by humans that's often based off the current cultural situation
Define a geometric boundary and give an example
A straight line drawn on a map. Ex: Western U.S. and Canada
Define an antecedent boundary and give an example.
A boundary drawn across an area before it is well populated and before most of the cultural landscape features were put into place. Ex: US and Canada, Western States in the US, parts of Africa.
Define a subsequent boundary and give examples
A boundary that's drawn after the development of the cultural landscape. Ex: China and the Korean peninsula, China and Vietnam
Define a consequent boundary and give examples
A boundary that coincides with some sort of cultural divide. Ex: Northern Ireland and Ireland, Pakistan and India
Define a superimposed boundary and give examples
A forced boundary that ignores the existing cultural landscape and patterns. Ex: Africa after European colonialism, the Middle East
Define a relic boundary and give examples
A former boundary line that no longer functions as such is still marked by some landscape feature. Ex: The Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall
When did colonialism end?
At the end of World War II
What was the Cold War a result of?
Competition for power, political influence, and territory
What is the Mackinder Heartland Theory?
It's a theory established in 1904 that states that whoever controls the heartland (eurasia) can then control the rimland and then the world. Supported the goal of world domination attempted by the Nazis and the USSR
Define a shatterbelt and give examples
An area of instability between regions with opposing ideals and political and cultural values. Ex: Eastern Europe during the Cold War- separated communism and democracy. The middle east is also a shatterbelt
What is the Rimland Theory?
The theory created in 1942 that's a counterargument to the heartland theory and argues that control over the rimland and costal areas will lead to world dominance
Where are most of the remaining colonies?
The Pacific and the Caribbean
What are the largest and smallest colonies in the world and who do they belong to?
Puerto Rico is the world's largest colony and belongs to the US. The Pitcairn Islands is the smallest colony and belongs to the UK
How many landlocked countries/states are there in the world?
What is irredentism? Give examples.
The disregard for current borders in an attempt to reclaim lost territory- often because of ties to a specific ethnic affiliation. Ex: ISIS, Crimea
What is the median line principle?
The idea that water borders are generally considered to be halfway between the coastlines of 2 different countries.
What's another idea instead of the median-line principle?
That borders are 12 miles out to sea from the land border and the EEZ (exclusive economic zone) is 200 miles off the border. The EEZ means the state has exclusive rights to fishing, oil drilling, etc in that area
What state claims the most EEZ territory?
What is the area of most controversy over water borders?
What island is disputed by the Greeks and the Turks?
What did the UN set up in Cyprus?
The Green Line
Define electoral geography
The geography of political representation and how space is arranged in order to meet political goals
When a unitary power/ central government grants some limited powers to a lower level unit (province, etc)
Define a unitary government and give examples
One central authority has all the power. Ex: China, France, UK, Spain
Define a federal government and give examples
Shared power with one central authority and smaller political units. Ex: Russia, Canada, USA, etc
How is devolution of a unitary state different than federalism?
The entire state remains unitary because the devolved powers may be temporary or limited- the central authority is still the one in charge
What are some pros and cons of devolution?
Pros: Granting limited powers can lessen civil unrest in multi-ethnic states and granting limited powers can be useful in a large country.
Cons: Can be centrifugal- granting too much power can lead to succession movements. Ex: Scotland, Quebec, and Spain
What is gerrymandering?
A form of redistricting when the borders of a voting district are manipulated and redrawn to benefit the party in power- named after Elbridge Gerry
When is gerrymandering typically done?
Every 10 years (right after the census) it's common for the party in power to redraw the voting district
International organizations that seek economic and political cooperation. Decisions made by a multinational community
Using fear and violence to intimidate in order to achieve political or ideological goals
What is terrorism often a response to?
Supranationalism- it frustrates them