Flashcards in Chapter 6 Test Deck (120):
What are the 3 biggest universalizing religions?
Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
What are the 2 biggest ethnic religions?
What's the difference between a universalizing and ethnic religion?
A universalizing religion's main goal is conversion, and is widespread. An ethnic religion typically doesn't have one specific founder, and is part of one's ethnic identity because it isn't worldwide.
What % of the world's population subscribes to a universalizing religion?
What % of the world's population subscribes to an ethnic religion?
What is another name for an ethnic religion and why is it called that?
Called "Natural religions" because of the importance they place on the natural landscape and specific natural landmarks
Who is the founder of Christianity?
Jesus of Nazareth
What year was Christianity founded?
What does CE stand for?
Where does Christianity predominate?
The Wester Hemisphere
Why can Christianity be found all over the world?
Missionary work, colonization, and migration
How did Christianity spread in the early days?
Missionaries using a network of Roman roads
Who is the founder of Islam?
What year was Islam founded?
How many people subscribe to Islam?
Where can Muslim people commonly be found?
Half of them are in the middle east and the rest are in North Africa, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India
What are the 2 major branches of Islam?
Sunni and Shi'a
What do the Sunni believe?
That after Muhammad's death, the leader of the Muslim community should be elected
What do the Shi'a believe?
That after Muhammad's death, the leader of the Muslim community should be a blood relative of Muhammad
Where did Islam come from and diffuse to in the early days?
Islam originated in the Arabian peninsula to Spain through North Africa all the way to India as Muslims began creating an empire in the 600s and 700s
Who is the founder of Buddhism?
When was Buddhism founded?
What religion was Siddhartha originally and why did he question it?
He was originally a Hindu but began to question the limitations of the caste system
Why did Buddhism catch on/ diffuse and to who?
It diffused slowly at first but then caught on because it offered an appealing alternative to Hinduism and helped those who felt confined by the caste system achieve peace in this world
How many people subscribe to Judaism worldwide?
What religion is considered the first recorded monotheistic religion?
Who does Islam, Judaism, and Christianity trace their roots to?
Where do Jews live in the world today?
6 million Jews live in the US and most live in and around cities. 6 million Jews live in Israel.
2 million Jews live in Europe
Why did Judaism diffuse?
It diffused rapidly out of necessity due to refugees fleeing religious persecution
What is the oldest religion in the world?
What do holidays tend to be centered around in Hinduism?
Nature and the environment
What are the 3 major beliefs of Hinduism?
Reincarnation, Dharma, and Karma
The soul is reborn in different forms
Positive and negative forces caused by a person's actions
What are some important sites and traditions to Hinduism?
The Ganges River, Kumbh Mela, Diwali, Holi
What is the debate centered around Hinduism about?
Whether it is polytheistic or monotheistic- It has one god that can be seen in many different forms
Define universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just people living in one particular location
Define ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are are likely to have been based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
What percent of Christians are Roman Catholic?
What percent of Christians are Orthodox?
What percent of Christians are Protestant?
What are the 5 largest denominations of Protestant Christians?
Over 1/2 of the world's Muslims live outside the Middle East. Where?
North and Southwest Africa, South Asia
What percent of Muslims are Sunni?
What percent of Muslims are Shi'ite (Shia)?
NMWhat are the 4 countries where Shi'ite Muslims outnumber Sunni?
Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Oman, and Bahrain
What percent of the Buddhist population is Mahayana and where are they predominant?
56%. They predominate in China, Japan, and Korea
What percent of the Buddhist population is Theravada and where are they predominant?
38%. They are primarily found in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
What percent of the Buddhist population is Vajrayana and where are they predominant?
6%. Found in Tibet and Mongolia
Where are Hindus concentrated and what percent of Hindus live there?
Hindus are concentrated in India and 90% of them live there.
Where are Hindus concentrated besides India?
Nepal and Bangladesh
What factors can influence burial practices?
Climate, topography, customs, and religious beliefs
What are some characteristics of Christian burial practices?
The focus is on the church and the cemetery is a sacred space
What are some characteristics of Jewish burial practices?
No cremation because the body is a temple of God
What are some characteristics of Muslim burial practices?
Burial within 24 hours (often with no casket)
Why do Jews often place stones on graves?
To signify permanence and to show someone has visited. There are also few flowers in the hot, dry Middle East
What are some characteristics of Hindu burial practices and why?
Cremation with funeral pyres- purification of the body and because Shiva destroys and renews through fire
What river is very important to Hindus and why?
The Ganges River in India is an extremely important environmental sacred site for Hindus because its waters are believed to purify
What are some characteristics of Buddhist burial practices and why?
Buddhists often favor cremation of the body because of the lack of burial space in mountainous or overpopulated regions
What are some characteristics of Island Culture burial practices?
Water burials because of the lack of burial space
What is often called "the most contested piece of real estate on earth"?
The Dome of the Rock, located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem
What religions find importance in the Dome of the Rock?
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
What part of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is important to Judaism?
The Western Wall of the Jewish Temple
What part of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is important to Christianity?
The Church of the Holy Sepulcher
In what (2) ways do religions often put pressure on the environment and land?
Conflicts arise over access to sacred spaces and some burial practices/ methods of land use adversely affect the environment (pollution) and put a strain on natural resources
Which denomination of Christianity can commonly be found in the South/ South Eastern United States?
Which denomination of Christianity can commonly be found in the Western US (Utah area)?
Latter Day Saints/ Mormons
Which denomination of Christianity can commonly be found in the Northern US (North and South Dakota area)
What is the original hearth of Baptism?
What is the original hearth of Presbyterianism?
Scotland and England
What is the original hearth of Mormonism?
What are the various locations Baptism could have been found as it diffused?
England, Rhode Island, North Carolina. Now it can be found in China, Africa, Italy, Mexico, and Japan
What are the various locations Presbyterianism could have been found as it diffused?
Scotland, England, Northern Ireland, Southern US, and Western Pennsylvania
Where in America can Baptism be found in great numbers and why?
The South because of the Civil War
Where in America can Presbyterianism be found in great numbers and why?
Southern US and West Pennsylvania due to the fact that the original immigrants were from the highlands of Scotland and the climates are similar
Where in America can Mormonism be found in great numbers and why?
Utah and the surrounding area. Chain migration and persecution pushed them west to Utah. Limited farm land in Utah caused them to diffuse to the surrounding states.
Briefly explain some reasons for the diffusion of Baptism
Religious persecution, Slaves, Migration, and missionaries
Briefly explain some reasons for the diffusion of Presbyterianism
Contagious diffusion, the split of English and Scottish Churches, and immigration
Briefly explain some reasons for the diffusion of Mormonism
Persecution, chain migration, and missionaries
How did Baptism change over the years?
Baptists branched out and formed the Southern Baptist church. They didn't have to change from there until it began to spread internationally/ intranationally
How did Presbyterianism change over the years?
Little/ no change
How did Mormonism change over the years?
Laws against polygamy caused them to have to not participate in it (polygamy)
What is inter faith conflict?
Conflict between multiple faiths (ex: Christians vs Muslims)
What is intra faith conflict?
Conflict within one faith (ex: Protestant vs Catholic, Sunni vs Shi'ite)
What is the religious cause of conflicts between Pakistan and India?
Pakistan is predominately Muslim and India is predominately Hindu
What is the political cause of conflicts between Pakistan and India?
Both countries have nuclear weapons and disagree over territory
What is Kashmir?
A disputed region in the north
What is the religious aspect of the Kashmir conflict?
The population of the Kashmir region is mostly Muslim but administered by a Hindu leader
Describe the Kashmir conflict from a political point of view
In 1947 after World War 2, India and Pakistan were divided along ethnic and religious lines. Dispute over territory
What is the Taliban?
An Islamic extremist group founded in Afghanistan in the early 1990s
What does the Taliban want?
They want to destroy the expression of other faiths and see Western culture as a threat and want a strict interpretation of the Quran
What did the Taliban destroy?
Buddhist statues in Afghanistan
What religion and denominations is the conflict in Northern Ireland about?
Protestant and Catholic
Who developed geography?
Why is there a conflict in Northern Ireland?
Because England (a Protestant nation) has tried many times to dominate and rule Ireland (a Catholic nation) which has resulted in several rebellions and conflict
What did the English due to the Irish?
England colonized Ireland and kicked out many Irish farmers and replaced them with Protestant farmers from England.
What laws did England impose on the Irish when they invaded it?
The English imposed strict rules on land ownership, voting, and banning the native Gaelic langauge
What makes the Northern Ireland conflict BOTH religious and political?
Protestants consider themselves British while Catholics consider themselves Irish
Why are tensions lower than ever in Northern Ireland?
Secularism- When religion isn't an important aspect in one's life and is growing in Europe
What religion, nationality, and ethnicity are people who support a state of Palestine?
They are Palestinian, Muslim, and Arab
What religion, nationality, and ethnicity are people who support a state of Israel?
Israeli, Jewish, and Jewish
After the end of WW2, what country is placed in charge of Palestine?
At the end of 1937 what did Britain recommend Israel/ Palestine split into?
One Arab state and one Jewish state
In what year was the decision about what to do about the Israel/ Palestine conflict handed over to the UN?
About what percent of the Palestinian Arab population resettled into refugee camps?
What have the Israelis discovered in recent years?
They've discovered tunnels between Egypt and the Gaza Strip that are believed to be used for smuggling weapons and missile parts by Hamas and other terrorist groups
What 2 Palestinian territories are under Israeli control?
Gaza and the West Bank
What does the UN recognize as as state, Palestine or Israel?
What does the US and Israel recognize as as state, Palestine or Israel?
What do many Palestinians consider themselves?
They see themselves as a stateless nation, or a group of people without a homeland
What are 2 universalizing religions that don't have that many adherents?
Sikhism and Bahá í
What are 2 religions that make up the Chinese Traditional religion?
Confucianism and Taoism
What does syncretic mean?
A religion that combines several traditions
What is a primal-indigenous religion?
A group of religions that not many people know about because traditions are passed down by word of mouth
What are 2 examples of primal-indigenous religions?
Shamanism and Paganism
What is the dominate religion in North Korea?
What are some characteristics of African Traditional religions?
They are ethnic religions that often incorporate animism into their beliefs
What is Spiritism?
The belief that the human personality continues to exist after death and communicate with the living through the agency of a medium or psychic. Most spiritualists live in Brazil