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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Test Deck (120):
1

What are the 3 biggest universalizing religions?

Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

2

What are the 2 biggest ethnic religions?

Judaism, Hinduism

3

What's the difference between a universalizing and ethnic religion?

A universalizing religion's main goal is conversion, and is widespread. An ethnic religion typically doesn't have one specific founder, and is part of one's ethnic identity because it isn't worldwide.

4

What % of the world's population subscribes to a universalizing religion?

52%

5

What % of the world's population subscribes to an ethnic religion?

26%

6

What is another name for an ethnic religion and why is it called that?

Called "Natural religions" because of the importance they place on the natural landscape and specific natural landmarks

7

Who is the founder of Christianity?

Jesus of Nazareth

8

What year was Christianity founded?

33 CE

9

What does CE stand for?

Common Era

10

Where does Christianity predominate?

The Wester Hemisphere

11

Why can Christianity be found all over the world?

Missionary work, colonization, and migration

12

How did Christianity spread in the early days?

Missionaries using a network of Roman roads

13

Who is the founder of Islam?

Muhammad

14

What year was Islam founded?

610 CE

15

How many people subscribe to Islam?

1.6 billion

16

Where can Muslim people commonly be found?

Half of them are in the middle east and the rest are in North Africa, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India

17

What are the 2 major branches of Islam?

Sunni and Shi'a

18

What do the Sunni believe?

That after Muhammad's death, the leader of the Muslim community should be elected

19

What do the Shi'a believe?

That after Muhammad's death, the leader of the Muslim community should be a blood relative of Muhammad

20

Where did Islam come from and diffuse to in the early days?

Islam originated in the Arabian peninsula to Spain through North Africa all the way to India as Muslims began creating an empire in the 600s and 700s

21

Who is the founder of Buddhism?

Siddhartha Guatama

22

When was Buddhism founded?

500 BC

23

What religion was Siddhartha originally and why did he question it?

He was originally a Hindu but began to question the limitations of the caste system

24

Why did Buddhism catch on/ diffuse and to who?

It diffused slowly at first but then caught on because it offered an appealing alternative to Hinduism and helped those who felt confined by the caste system achieve peace in this world

25

How many people subscribe to Judaism worldwide?

16 million

26

What religion is considered the first recorded monotheistic religion?

Judaism

27

Who does Islam, Judaism, and Christianity trace their roots to?

Abraham

28

Where do Jews live in the world today?

6 million Jews live in the US and most live in and around cities. 6 million Jews live in Israel.
2 million Jews live in Europe

29

Why did Judaism diffuse?

It diffused rapidly out of necessity due to refugees fleeing religious persecution

30

What is the oldest religion in the world?

Hinduism

31

What do holidays tend to be centered around in Hinduism?

Nature and the environment

32

What are the 3 major beliefs of Hinduism?

Reincarnation, Dharma, and Karma

33

Define reincarnation

The soul is reborn in different forms

34

Define dharma

Good deeds

35

Define karma

Positive and negative forces caused by a person's actions

36

What are some important sites and traditions to Hinduism?

The Ganges River, Kumbh Mela, Diwali, Holi

37

What is the debate centered around Hinduism about?

Whether it is polytheistic or monotheistic- It has one god that can be seen in many different forms

38

Define universalizing religion

A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just people living in one particular location

39

Define ethnic religion

A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are are likely to have been based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated

40

What percent of Christians are Roman Catholic?

51%

41

What percent of Christians are Orthodox?

11%

42

What percent of Christians are Protestant?

24%

43

What are the 5 largest denominations of Protestant Christians?

****

44

Over 1/2 of the world's Muslims live outside the Middle East. Where?

North and Southwest Africa, South Asia

45

What percent of Muslims are Sunni?

83%

46

What percent of Muslims are Shi'ite (Shia)?

16%

47

NMWhat are the 4 countries where Shi'ite Muslims outnumber Sunni?

Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Oman, and Bahrain

48

What percent of the Buddhist population is Mahayana and where are they predominant?

56%. They predominate in China, Japan, and Korea

49

What percent of the Buddhist population is Theravada and where are they predominant?

38%. They are primarily found in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand

50

What percent of the Buddhist population is Vajrayana and where are they predominant?

6%. Found in Tibet and Mongolia

51

Where are Hindus concentrated and what percent of Hindus live there?

Hindus are concentrated in India and 90% of them live there.

52

Where are Hindus concentrated besides India?

Nepal and Bangladesh

53

What factors can influence burial practices?

Climate, topography, customs, and religious beliefs

54

What are some characteristics of Christian burial practices?

The focus is on the church and the cemetery is a sacred space

55

What are some characteristics of Jewish burial practices?

No cremation because the body is a temple of God

56

What are some characteristics of Muslim burial practices?

Burial within 24 hours (often with no casket)

57

Why do Jews often place stones on graves?

To signify permanence and to show someone has visited. There are also few flowers in the hot, dry Middle East

58

What are some characteristics of Hindu burial practices and why?

Cremation with funeral pyres- purification of the body and because Shiva destroys and renews through fire

59

What river is very important to Hindus and why?

The Ganges River in India is an extremely important environmental sacred site for Hindus because its waters are believed to purify

60

What are some characteristics of Buddhist burial practices and why?

Buddhists often favor cremation of the body because of the lack of burial space in mountainous or overpopulated regions

61

What are some characteristics of Island Culture burial practices?

Water burials because of the lack of burial space

62

What is often called "the most contested piece of real estate on earth"?

The Dome of the Rock, located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem

63

What religions find importance in the Dome of the Rock?

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

64

What part of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is important to Judaism?

The Western Wall of the Jewish Temple

65

What part of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is important to Christianity?

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher

66

In what (2) ways do religions often put pressure on the environment and land?

Conflicts arise over access to sacred spaces and some burial practices/ methods of land use adversely affect the environment (pollution) and put a strain on natural resources

67

Which denomination of Christianity can commonly be found in the South/ South Eastern United States?

Baptist

68

Which denomination of Christianity can commonly be found in the Western US (Utah area)?

Latter Day Saints/ Mormons

69

Which denomination of Christianity can commonly be found in the Northern US (North and South Dakota area)

Lutheran

70

What is the original hearth of Baptism?

England

71

What is the original hearth of Presbyterianism?

Scotland and England

72

What is the original hearth of Mormonism?

New York

73

What are the various locations Baptism could have been found as it diffused?

England, Rhode Island, North Carolina. Now it can be found in China, Africa, Italy, Mexico, and Japan

74

What are the various locations Presbyterianism could have been found as it diffused?

Scotland, England, Northern Ireland, Southern US, and Western Pennsylvania

75

Where in America can Baptism be found in great numbers and why?

The South because of the Civil War

76

Where in America can Presbyterianism be found in great numbers and why?

Southern US and West Pennsylvania due to the fact that the original immigrants were from the highlands of Scotland and the climates are similar

77

Where in America can Mormonism be found in great numbers and why?

Utah and the surrounding area. Chain migration and persecution pushed them west to Utah. Limited farm land in Utah caused them to diffuse to the surrounding states.

78

Briefly explain some reasons for the diffusion of Baptism

Religious persecution, Slaves, Migration, and missionaries

79

Briefly explain some reasons for the diffusion of Presbyterianism

Contagious diffusion, the split of English and Scottish Churches, and immigration

80

Briefly explain some reasons for the diffusion of Mormonism

Persecution, chain migration, and missionaries

81

How did Baptism change over the years?

Baptists branched out and formed the Southern Baptist church. They didn't have to change from there until it began to spread internationally/ intranationally

82

How did Presbyterianism change over the years?

Little/ no change

83

How did Mormonism change over the years?

Laws against polygamy caused them to have to not participate in it (polygamy)

84

What is inter faith conflict?

Conflict between multiple faiths (ex: Christians vs Muslims)

85

What is intra faith conflict?

Conflict within one faith (ex: Protestant vs Catholic, Sunni vs Shi'ite)

86

What is the religious cause of conflicts between Pakistan and India?

Pakistan is predominately Muslim and India is predominately Hindu

87

What is the political cause of conflicts between Pakistan and India?

Both countries have nuclear weapons and disagree over territory

88

What is Kashmir?

A disputed region in the north

89

What is the religious aspect of the Kashmir conflict?

The population of the Kashmir region is mostly Muslim but administered by a Hindu leader

90

Describe the Kashmir conflict from a political point of view

In 1947 after World War 2, India and Pakistan were divided along ethnic and religious lines. Dispute over territory

91

What is the Taliban?

An Islamic extremist group founded in Afghanistan in the early 1990s

92

What does the Taliban want?

They want to destroy the expression of other faiths and see Western culture as a threat and want a strict interpretation of the Quran

93

What did the Taliban destroy?

Buddhist statues in Afghanistan

94

What religion and denominations is the conflict in Northern Ireland about?

Protestant and Catholic

95

Who developed geography?

Eratosthenes

96

Why is there a conflict in Northern Ireland?

Because England (a Protestant nation) has tried many times to dominate and rule Ireland (a Catholic nation) which has resulted in several rebellions and conflict

97

What did the English due to the Irish?

England colonized Ireland and kicked out many Irish farmers and replaced them with Protestant farmers from England.

98

What laws did England impose on the Irish when they invaded it?

The English imposed strict rules on land ownership, voting, and banning the native Gaelic langauge

99

What makes the Northern Ireland conflict BOTH religious and political?

Protestants consider themselves British while Catholics consider themselves Irish

100

Why are tensions lower than ever in Northern Ireland?

Secularism- When religion isn't an important aspect in one's life and is growing in Europe

101

What religion, nationality, and ethnicity are people who support a state of Palestine?

They are Palestinian, Muslim, and Arab

102

What religion, nationality, and ethnicity are people who support a state of Israel?

Israeli, Jewish, and Jewish

103

After the end of WW2, what country is placed in charge of Palestine?

Britain

104

At the end of 1937 what did Britain recommend Israel/ Palestine split into?

One Arab state and one Jewish state

105

In what year was the decision about what to do about the Israel/ Palestine conflict handed over to the UN?

1947

106

About what percent of the Palestinian Arab population resettled into refugee camps?

About 85%

107

What have the Israelis discovered in recent years?

They've discovered tunnels between Egypt and the Gaza Strip that are believed to be used for smuggling weapons and missile parts by Hamas and other terrorist groups

108

What 2 Palestinian territories are under Israeli control?

Gaza and the West Bank

109

What does the UN recognize as as state, Palestine or Israel?

Palestine

110

What does the US and Israel recognize as as state, Palestine or Israel?

Israel

111

What do many Palestinians consider themselves?

They see themselves as a stateless nation, or a group of people without a homeland

112

What are 2 universalizing religions that don't have that many adherents?

Sikhism and Bahá í

113

What are 2 religions that make up the Chinese Traditional religion?

Confucianism and Taoism

114

What does syncretic mean?

A religion that combines several traditions

115

What is a primal-indigenous religion?

A group of religions that not many people know about because traditions are passed down by word of mouth

116

What are 2 examples of primal-indigenous religions?

Shamanism and Paganism

117

What is the dominate religion in North Korea?

Juchte

118

What are some characteristics of African Traditional religions?

They are ethnic religions that often incorporate animism into their beliefs

119

What is Spiritism?

The belief that the human personality continues to exist after death and communicate with the living through the agency of a medium or psychic. Most spiritualists live in Brazil

120

What is Cosmogony?

The set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe