Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (61):
What does CBD stand for?
Central business district
What percent of land area is the CBD on and why?
The CBD is on less than 1% of the urban land area – there's a high concentration of services due to agglomeration
What are the three types of services?
Consumer, business, and public services
What are consumer services?
Retailers with a high threshold (concerts, restaurants, etc)
What are business services?
Law firms, banks, offices, etc.
What are public services?
What is excluded from the CBD and why?
Industrial and residential buildings (but the residential part is changing). This is due to high land costs
What are cities converting riverfronts from and to?
They're converting from industry to entertainment, leisure, tourism, and parks
What trend is reversing in the cities?
The residential trend is reversing. This is called re-urbanization – people are returning to the CBD
What leads to vertical geography and what is it?
Lack of space and high land costs leads to vertical geography – skyscrapers
What is the only CBD in the US without skyscrapers?
Why doesn't Washington DC have skyscrapers?
Because by law, no office building can be higher than the capital dome (there have been a few exceptions)
What is the CBD?
What are underground CBD is and where/why do they exist?
Some cities provide services underground due to competition for space, transportation needs, utilities, and weather.
What's an example of an underground CBD?
What are CBD's like in North America?
CBD's are more commercial and less residential
What are CBD's like everywhere else except for North America and Europe?
CBD's tend to be more residential mixed in with commercial areas to support the population
What are the CBDs in Europe like?
They have more markets and less traffic (cars are banned in many cities)
Why did american suburbs grow rapidly after WW2?
The post war baby boom caused many large families and the need for affordable housing, so with the help of the rising use of cars and interstates, people left the overcrowded cities for the suburbs
What is Levittown, NY, and why is it significant?
It was the first major suburb development. It was started in 1949 by William Levitt who produced up to 150 houses a week, which caused the price of housing to go down (the average cost was $60 a month with no down payment). With the help of the rise of the use of interstates and cars, these houses filled up quickly.
What is an epoch?
A significant time period in history
What was Borchert's main idea?
That the urbanization process in the U.S. is based on epochs of transportation related technology
What are the epochs of transportation technology?
The Sail-Wagon Epoch, the Iron Horse Epoch, Steel Rail Epoch, the Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch, and the High-Tech Epoch
What left a void in CBDs and why?
Suburbanization left a void in many CBDs because retail services like large department stores left (they followed the people)
What does placelessness have to do with suburbanization?
Suburbanization led to the growth of "big box" stores/chains and because of this they've replaced many small "mom and pop" stores
Who stayed in the city as people moved out into the suburbs?
Many african-americans left the south during WW2 for northern cities to escape segregation and find jobs. After many white residents left the city and minorities moved in, many landlords allowed their houses to crumble.
What fueled the white flight?
Banks, mortgage companies, and real estate agents helped fuel the white flight from the cities into the suburbs
What is redlining? Give an example
Selectively refusing to grant loans or home insurance to people in certain areas. Ex: Philadelphia in the 40s and 50s
What is blockbusting?
When real estate agents convinced white residents that African Americans were moving into the neighborhood and should sell (at a financial loss) and move out to the suburbs immediately.
What are the three issues associated with suburbanization and re-urbanization?
Environmentalism, urban sprawl, and loss of unique identity/ placelessness
What are urban heat islands? Give an example.
All the metal, steel, concrete, and asphalt of the city retains the heat of the day and can create smog. Ex: Atlanta
What are the major issues with flooding and water runoff in cities?
Poor drainage due to parking lots and pavement- no open ground and little vegetation to soak up standing water.
What is new urbanism?
What is urban sprawl? Give an example
The spreading out of a city. Ex: Pittsburg.
How many world cities can fit in Atlanta?
What causes a megalopolis/ what causes it?
The annexation of surrounding towns creates a sprawling urban area called a megalopolis
What is the peripheral/ galactic model?
Suburbs and urban sprawl have led to a new model of the typical city in the US. Car dependent commuters. Smaller cities are tied together by large ring roads (a bypass past the larger city). Jobs, people, retail, etc have moved to the periphery.
What causes edge cities?
Population leaving the CBDs has led to the growth of "edge cities.
What are edge cities?
A dense concentration of residents, businesses, retail, and other services outside a traditional downtown. (think Cool Springs)
What's another name for edge cities and what is it describing?
Boonburbs- rapidly growing suburbs that have become their own official cities
What are some characteristics of edge cities?
Several square feet of office space + retail, specific place name, and no city govt. Nothing was there before 30 years ago
What is the concept of an edge city based off of?
Tysons corner, Virginia
What is urban renewal?
Attempts to "clean up" the inner cities and return the city to residential status. Its goal is to help eliminate the sprawl and traffic congestion created by rapid suburbanization.
What does Arlington, Virginia do that's unique?
It has transit-oriented development that is an effort to help eliminate traffic issues by encouraging development near public transportation lines.
What is gentrification?
The desire for some to renovate old, neglected houses and buildings in the inner city has led to many to "gentrify" inner city neighborhoods
Who does gentrification appeal to?
Yuppies, preservationists wishing to restore old buildings, DINKS (double income no kids), recent college grads with good paying jobs, and empty nesters
What are the positives to gentrification?
It cleans up crumbling areas, increases tax revenue for the city, encourages the return of residents and businesses to the city, and gives a new life to historic buildings and homes
What are the downsides to gentrification?
Inner city housing becomes unaffordable and lower income residents are forced out of the city which causes them to have to commute and pay for gas. Also, the migration of low income residents has led to the rise in "gated communities" in the suburubs
Describe some characteristics of the Latin American City Model and what is it also called?
Also called the Griffin-Ford Model. Squatter settlements/ slums are on the edges of the CBD/periphery and on cheap land that's less desirable and dangerous (more vulnerable to natural disasters), wide streets, Spanish style, the wealthy live along the commercial spine, and the CBD dominates the central plaza.
What are some examples of the Latin American City Model?
Buenos Aires, Argentina (Plaza De Mayo), the Barrios of Mexico City, Bogota, Colombia, Brazil's favalas (with escalators)
Describe the African City Model and what is another name for it?
Also called the De Blij Model. The city is made up of three districts/ CBDs: Colonial district, traditional district, and the market zone (mixed). Residential areas are segregated and slums are on the edges. It often has a French style of architecture (particularly in North Africa with their wide tree lined streets and pedestrian avenues)
What are some examples of the African City Model?
Lagos, Nigeria; Cape Town, South Africa; Johannesburg, South Africa, and Nairobi, Kenya
Describe the South East Asian City Model and what is another name for it?
Also called the McGee Model. It's mostly found in costal cities because of trade. Development starts in the port zone and extends out. Squatter areas are segregated from the wealthy areas that extend out in one zone.
What city is the Burgess model modeled after?
Chicago in the 1920s
What is the model with the rings called?
The Concentric Zone Model.
Describe the characteristics of each region of the Concentric Zone Model
A= The Core/ CBD
B= The zone of transition- Warehouses, poor quality, housing, industry, etc
C, D, and E= Housing quality increases as you get further from the CBD
Who developed the Sector Model?
Describe the Sector Model
As a city grows, it spreads out int zones/ sectors from the center. Patterns develop based on social groups, transportation lines, income, etc. Lower class housing is in a sector along trolley and rail lines. The upper class housing extends out in one zone/ wedge separated from the lower class housing
What are the three US land use models?
Concentric Zone Model, Sector Model, and the Multiple Nuclei Model
Who developed the Multiple Nuclei Model?
Harris and Ullman