Flashcards in Chapter 9 Test Deck (115):
What 3 areas does the GII take into consideration when comparing the situation of women to men?
Empowerment, labor, and reproductive health
Define Gender Inequality Index (GII)
The amount of inequality between men and women in a country
Where are the highest GIIs?
Developed countries (Europe, North America, China, Australia, etc)
Where are GIIs the lowest?
Developing countries/ LDCs (Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Asia)
What is empowerment?
The belief that women can achieve economic and political power and that all people are equal
What two indicators are measured to calculate the empowerment dimension of the GII?
The percent of seats held by women in the national legislature and the percent of women who have completed high school
What is the Female Labor Force Participation Rate?
The percentage of women who hold full time jobs outside the home
What region sees the highest numbers of women in the national legislature?
What is the percentage of women in the national legislature in Europe?
What is the percentage of women in the national legislature in the US?
Why does the UN include reproductive health as a contributor to the GII?
Because in countries where effective control over reproduction is universal, women have fewer children and because of that, maternal and child health is improved
What has been the trend in gender inequality since the 1990s?
It has declined
What regions have shown the greatest improvements on the GII?
Southwest Asia and North Africa
Where does the US rank on the GII and why?
It ranks 47 because of the lack of reproductive rights and the low percentages of women in national legislature
How many countries in the world treat women equally to men?
What are the 2 ways to measure gender inequality?
The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
What does a GDI of 1.0 indicate?
Complete gender equality
What are the 3 factors of the GDI?
Economic (female income as compared to men), Social (number of females enrolled in school and are literate), and Demographic (life expectancy of women)
What are some differences between the top 10 HDI and the top 10 GDI?
The US, Canada, and Australia are all high on the HDI and not even in the top ten for GDI.
What is the GEM?
A measure of women's economic and political power
What are the 2 factors that are considered when calculating GEM?
Economic (salary and access to professional employment) and Political (percentage of women in political leadership roles)
What are the differences between GDI and GEM?
The GDI focuses on the expansion of capabilities for women and the GEM is concerned with the use of those capabilities to take advantage of all the opportunities of life.
The quantity of something that producers have available
The quantity of a product consumers are able and willing to buy
What are the 3 principle types of consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas?
Businesses, homes, and transportation
Where is coal found?
Tropical locations, swampy areas, and mid-latitude countries
What is petroleum and where is it found?
It's residue deposited on the sea floor millions of years ago and is found in developing countries that were once under water
What is natural gas and where is it found?
It is sediment deposited millions of years ago on the sea floor and is found in developing countries that were once under water
Explain 3 ways potential reserves can become proven reserves
Undiscovered fields, enhanced recovery from already discovered fields, and unconventional sources
What is OPEC?
An alliance called the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting countries
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear energy as an alternative energy source?
Advantages: Large amounts of energy for a small amount of the resource
Disadvantages: Potential accidents, radioactive waste, bomb material, limited uranium resources, and high cost
What is hydroelectric energy and who uses it?
It's energy made from the movement of water and 2/3 of it is used by developing countries. Brazil uses it a lot but the US hardly uses it
What is biomass fuel and who uses it? Why isn't it used more?
It's derived from plant material and animal waste (including wood and crops) and Brazil uses it to fuel cars and trucks. However, it is inefficient in the wood/crops used can be used to feed people instead.
What is wind power and who uses it?
It's the use of windmills and turbines to harvest energy from wind. It creates 5.7% of electricity in the US and can be commonly found in eastern states such as Illinois
What is geothermal energy and who uses it?
It's harvesting the energy of natural nuclear reactions in the Earth's core. It's commonly used in places where crust plates meet (California, Italy, New Zealand, Japan) because it's easier to access there. It's equally used by developed and developing countries.
What is nuclear fusion and why isn't it used often?
It's that fusion of hydrogen atoms to form helium. This creates a lot of energy. However, fusion can only occur at millions of degrees.
What is passive solar energy and why isn't it used more?
It's when an entire building is designed to distribute solar energy. Because of the fact that it takes a lot of work to build, it isn't used very often. However, it is cost effective.
What is active solar energy and why isn't it used more?
It's a solar collector positioned on the roofs of building and used to heat/cool the building. However, it isn't as cost effective as passive solar energy.
Where is the heaviest demand?
In more developed/ developing countries.
Where are more reserves/ supplies located?
In developing/ lesser developed countries
What are fossil fuels?
An energy source used a lot by MDCs that is formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
What are the 3 most widely used energy sources and when did they start to become used?
Coal, which has been the leading energy source since the late 1800s.
Petroleum, which became important after the widespread use of cars in the 1900s.
Natural gas, which was first burned off as a waste product of petroleum drilling.
What percentages of the world's energy do China and the US consume?
China consumes 20% and the US consumes 18%
Where is coal found?
Found in large quantities in China, US, India, and Australia
Where is petroleum found?
In Russia, Saudi Arabia, and North America
Where is natural gas found?
In Russia, Southwest Asia, and the US
What are the benefits of renewable energy sources and what are some examples?
There is essentially an unlimited supply and it isn't depleted when used. Ex: Hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, biomass, and solar energy.
What are some disadvantages to nonrenewable energy and what are some examples?
It forms so slowly that it can't be renewed for practical purposes. Ex: Coal, petroleum, and natural gas
How long will proven coal reserves at current demand last and where are these reserves?
They'll last about 131 years and are mostly in Russia, China, and the US
How long will proven natural gas reserves at current demand last and where are these reserves?
49 years and 60% of reserves are in Russia, Iran, Qatar.
How long will proven petroleum reserves at current demand last and where are these reserves?
43 years and most reserves are in Southwest Asia, North Africa, Central Asia, and Canada
What are potential energy reserves? What's one example?
They're reserves that are undiscovered but thought to exist, and using them would be like wringing out the last bit of water from a towel. It would be expensive, unproven, and harmful to access them. Ex: Fracking
What are the Top 5 most polluted cities?
New Delhi, India; Beijing, China; Cairo, Egypt; Santiago, Chile; Mexico City, Mexico
Where does the majority of the world's wealth stay and why?
It stays in core MDCs where it is re-invested
What percent of the world's population lives in MDCs and what percent of wealth do MDCs have?
MDCs contain only 15% of the world population but 75% of the world's wealth
When was Rostow's Five Stages of Development Model created?
In the 1960s
What did economic historian Walt Rostow say?
He said that all countries must go through each phase as they develop, but some develop at a different pace than others
What is the first stage of Rostow's Five Stages of Development?
Traditional Society- Primarily agricultural, military dictatorship, theocracy
What is the second stage of Rostow's Five Stages of Development?
Preconditions for takeoff- Infrastructure improvements begin due to an elite group of people who starts to stimulate economic activity
What is the third stage of Rostow's Five Stages of Development?
Takeoff- Rapid growth and modern advancements in a limited number of economic sectors (usually manufacturing)
What is the fourth stage of Rostow's Five Stages of Development?
Drive to maturity- Modern technology spreads to all sectors of the economy. This increases productivity and workers become more specialized.
What is the fifth stage of Rostow's Five Stages of Development?
The Age of Mass Consumption- The economy shifts from manufacturing to high value consumer goods. Basically MDCs with lots of tertiary sector activity.
In 1945 what was Japan's economy like?
It was in ruins because it was just after WW2. Their GDP was equal to that of Ethiopia and Somalia and they had half of India's net worth.
What was destroyed in Japan during the war?
Many major cities and industrial sectors were destroyed, such as:Tokyo, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Nagoya.
When was Hiroshima bombed and how many casualties were there?
August 6th, 1945. 135,000 people were died or injured.
When was Nagasaki bombed and how many casualties were there?
It was bombed 3 days after Hiroshima and 64,000 people died or were injured.
What kind of government did Japan have before it was eliminated after the war?
It had an Imperial-Military run government
What did the US do to help Japan after the war?
The US occupied Japan and began to invest in aid and economic activity
What did Japan begin to improve after the war?
When was Japan's economic growth the highest in the world?
Between 1950 and 1960
How did Japan's economy grow so fast?
US investment and aid, the Korean War, Japan's economic policies, and their military focus and discipline
What did many companies in Japan do after WW2?
Many companies guaranteed a job for life in corporations and factories. This worked because they began to focus their military discipline into technology and manufacturing.
What is the "keiretsu"?
A business group centered around a core bank. Each part is interlocked and they invest in and support each other.
What is one example of companies involved in a keiretsu?
Mitsubishi, Nissan and Toyota all invested in aircraft, petroleum, banking, shipping, computers, paper, real estate, and even fish and meat processing
What is automation?
The first major user of industrial robots (in car factories)
What happened to Japan's GDP in the first 9 years post war?
Japan's GDP more than doubled in 9 year
How long did it take Japan to surpass the U.K. and West Germany's GDPs?
It took Japan less than 20 years to surpass the U.K. and West Germany's GDPs.
What are the 4 Asian Tigers?
South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan all followed the Japanese formula and rapidly industrialized and became known as the "4 Asian Tigers".
What are the Asian Tiger Cubs?
Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand are beginning to follow this example
What supranationalist organization did Vietnam join in 2007.
Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization to become an emerging world economic power
What is the Vietnamese Communist Party's "Doi Moi" (Renovation)?
They are reducing trade barriers and opening the economy to more private organizations.
How has Vietnam's agricultural contribution to the GDP changed in 15 years? How long did it take China and India to do this?
It's gone from 40% to 20% in just 15 years. It took China 29 years to do this and India 41 years.
What is Vietnam the world leading exporter in?
They export the most pepper and for the past 4 years have exported the most cashews. They also are second to Thailand in exporting rice and second to Brazil with coffee
Why have many factory owners shifted from producing stuff in China to Vietnam?
They've shifted from China to Vietnam because of rising labor costs in China and low labor costs in Vietnam.
What 3 types of infrastructure improvements have led to rapid economic development in Vietnam?
Road infrastructure, electricity networks, container ports
How have the specific demographics of Vietnam contributed to its rapid economic growth?
Most of its population is young, well educated, and incresingly online.
Why are broadband Internet subscriptions and mobile phone subscriptions good indicators of economic progress in Vietnam?
It indicates that they have enough money to afford to keep up with modern technology.
Why are companies like HP, IBM, and Panasonic beginning to outsource more jobs to Vietnam?
Because Vietnam has a lot of young college graduates and relatively low wages. Because of that there is essentially a lot of cheap, young laborers.
Why can an increasing number of bank loans be a bad thing?
An associated rise in non-performing loans could trigger an economic downfall.
What will likely happen to Vietnam's economic productivity in the future?
Productivity will slow unless productivity improvements pick up the slack for the declining growth in the labor force
Define foreign direct investment
Investment made by another country into another country's economy
What are the pros and cons of foreign direct investment? Give an example.
Pros- Helps multiple economies at once
Cons- Uneven distribution of wealth due to most wealthy countries just investing in other MDCs
Ex: US and Japan after world war 2
Define import substitution
Replacing foreign imports with domestic products
Define international trade
Trading with other countries
Define self sufficiency
When a country doesn't trade with other countries – internal economic development
Define structural adjustment*
Loans provided by the IMF + UB to promote economic development
Define fair trade
A commerce in which products are made and traded according to standards to protect worker conditions
What are the pros and cons of import substitution? Give an example.
Pros – Creates jobs in the short run.
Cons – GDP and growth will end up being lower then when it started, businesses have no competition and no reason to innovate
Ex: Latin America in the 1950s - 1980s
What are the pros and cons of international trade? Give an example.
Pros- Developing countries can export raw materials to developed countries and there's competition for businesses so they must innovate.
Cons – Uneven resource distribution, market decline, and increased dependency on MDC's
Ex: US and Africa
What are the pros and cons of self-sufficiency? Give an example.
Pros – None
Cons – Protection of inefficient business, need for a large bureaucracy
Ex: India and China in the 1970s, North Korea
What are the pros and cons of structural adjustment? Give an example.
Pros- Gets rid of excess government controls
Cons – Worsens health services in the long run
Ex: Idk maybe China
What are the pros and cons of fair trade? Give an example.
Pros- Increases the standard of working conditions
Cons- Raises the prices of goods
Ex: US and latin america
What are the two theories on uneven global trade/development?
Development through International Trade (Rostow's Model) and Development through Self-Sufficiency
What must a country do in order to remain self-sufficient?
It must set up trade barriers to protect its own interests in not trading with other countries
What are some problems of self-sufficiency?
Requires strict government control over the economy, an invitation for corruption, no competition for businesses stalls innovation
What is the core and periphery?
The core is the "haves" and the periphery is the "have nots"
What does Immanuel Wallerstein's World System Theory state?
That semi-periphery is key because they maintain balance between the rich core and the poor periphery. However, they also perpetuate the cycle of uneven trade and development.
What makes up the Core?
MDCs whose GDP mostly comes from the Tertiary sector
What makes up the Semi-Periphery?
Developing countries whose GDP mostly comes from the Secondary sector
What makes up the Periphery?
LDCs whose GDP mostly comes from the Primary sector
Why doesn't the periphery make as much money as the core?
Because they sell raw materials at low prices, but have to pay much higher prices for the finished goods that come out of more developed countries
What does the Dependency Theory state?
That poor countries need wealthy countries and are dependent on them for global trade
What is the global economy?
Raw materials come from LDCs (primary) and go to developing countries to be made into products (secondary) and are sold to MDCs in stores (tertiary)
What are the first 4 millennium development goals?
Eliminate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, and reduce child mortality