Chapter 2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocab Deck (32):
1

Infant mortality rate

The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 live births in a society

2

Life expectancy

The average number of years in individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live

3

Demographic transition model (DTM)

Is based on historical population trends of birth rate and death rate to suggest that a country total population growth rate cycles through stages as the country develops economically

4

Population pyramid

Are graph that represents this distribution of population by age and sex

5

Zero population growth

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero

6

Ecumene

The inhabited world

7

Overpopulation

When a place doesn't have enough resources to support life at a decent standard of living

8

Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area

9

Physiological density

The number of people per unit of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture

10

Agricultural density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture

11

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

12

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

13

Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

The percentage of growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate

14

Doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population while assuming a constant rate of natural increase

15

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

The average number of children a woman will have in her childbearing years

16

Zero population growth

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero

17

Infant mortality rate

The total number of deaths in a year of infants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 live births in a society

18

Life expectancy

The average number of years an individual can be expected to live given the current social, economic, and medical conditions.

19

Life expectancy at birth

The average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live

20

Demographic Transition Model (DMT)

Based on historical population trends of birth rate and death rate to suggest that a country's total population growth rate cycles through stages as that country develops economically

21

Population pyramid

A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex

22

Dependency ratio

The number of people under age 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people active in the work force

23

Sex ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population

24

Stage 1 of the DTM

High birth rates, high death rates. Agricultural, undeveloped. "old world" traditions. Ex: Somalia, Chad

25

Stage 2 of the DTM

High birth rates, lowering death rates.
Some kind of improvement in medicine, nutrition, water, or sanitation to keep people alive longer.
Countries beginning to develop.
Ex: Afghanistan, India in 1970

26

Stage 3 of the DTM

Developing countries.
Death rate going even further down, birth rate peaks and the begins to fall.
Women begin to work because of industrialization and have less kids.
Less kids in late stage 3, many at the beginning of stage 3
Ex: Brazil is early stage 3, Mexico is late stage 3

27

Stage 4 of the DTM

Steady birth and death rates.
Good health care and education.
In early stage 4 the population is still growing, stops growing at late stage 4.
Ex: US & Canada

28

Stage 5 (????) of the DTM

Birth rates low, death rates may go up a bit due to viruses evolving/ adapting to our medicines.
Ex: Germany, Poland, Russia, Japan

29

Thomas Malthus

He argues that the rate of the world's population increase is outrunning the development of food sources. However, he made these conclusions while England was in stage 2, which is when the population grows the most rapidly.

30

Epidemiological transition

Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition

31

Epidemiology

The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that effect everyone in a population during a small period of time and are produced by a cause that's not usually a problem

32

Pandemic

A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population