Flashcards in Crash course: All models + geography Deck (64):
Why does the birth rate fall in later stages of the DTM?
The birth rate gradually falls to match the new social structure
What diseases are common in later stages of the Epidemiologic Transition Model?
In later stages, diseases once thought eradicated reappear as more-developed societies come into easier contact with less-developed regions struggling with the more primitive diseases (like smallpox and the bubonic plague)
What's the leading cause of death in later stages of the ETM?
Diseases associated with old age (heart disease, etc)
When applied as to migration, what does the Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction state?
That larger and closer places attract more migrants than do smaller and further places
According to the Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition, when is the most international migration seen?
The most international migration is seen in stage 2 of the DTM because people become more mobile as industrialization develops
Summarize Ravenstein's Laws of of Migration
Push and pull factors, multiple step migration, better economic opportunities is usually the reason for migration, for every migration stream there's a counter stream, different factors such as gender, age, and socioecomomic level can all play a role in whether someone migrates or not
What does the Von Thunen Model explain and predict?
This model explains and predicts agricultural land use patterns in a theoretical state by varying transportation costs. It predicts that more-intensive rural land use is closer to the marketplace, and more-extensive rural land use is further from the cities marketplace. (these rural land use zones are divided in the model into concentric rings).
What does Weber's Least Cost Theory explain and predict?
It predicts where industry will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors. This theory assumes that industry will located based on the desire to minimize production costs and thus maximize profits.
What are some drawbacks of Weber's Least Cost Theory?
Drawbacks include its assumption of an immobile and equal labor force
*Describe Hotelling's Theory of Locational Interdependance
This theory asserts that an industry's locational choices are heavily influenced by the location of their chief competitors and related industries. (In other words, industries do not make isolated decisions on locations without considering where other related industries exist)
Describe Rostow's Modernization Model
It states that the development cycle is initiated by investment in a takeoff advantage, which sparks greater economic gain that eventually diffuses throughout the country's economy. Has different stages like traditional society, preconditions for takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, and high mass consumption
What are some drawbacks to Rostow's Modernization Model?
Drawbacks to this model include its not identifying cultural and historic differences in development trajectories because it is based on North American and Western European development histories
What does Borchert's Model of Urban Evolution explain and what are the different stages?
It was created to predict and explain the growth of cities in four phases of transportation history. Stages include (from 1-4): Sail wagon, iron horse, steel rail, and car and air travel
What does Christaller's Central Place Theory explain?
This model explains the patterns of urban places across the map. Christaller used a hexagonal hierarchical pattern of cities that are arranged to their varying locations in relation to the CBD and their functions
What does the Concentric Zone Model explain and what is its main principle?
This model was devised to explain the growth patterns of North American urban spaces. Its main principle is that cities can be viewed from above as a series of concentric rings and as the city grows, new rings are added and old ones change function
What do Bid-rent curves show?
They show the variations in rent different users are willing to pay for land at differnet distances from some peak point of accessibility and visibility in the market (the CBD). (rents usually decrease as it gets further from the CBD)
What generates different bid-rent curves?
Different types of land use (commercial retail, industrial, agriculture, housing) generate different bid-rent curves.
What do bid-rent curves explain?
Bid-rent curves explain the series of concentric rings f land use found in the concentric zone model
Describe Hoyt's Sector Model
It explains North American urban growth patterns in the 1930s in a pattern in which similar land uses and socioeconomic groups clustered in linear sectors radiating outward from a central business district, usually along transportation corridors
Describe Harris's and Ullman;s Multiple-Nuclei Model
It explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces based on the assumption that growth occurred independently around several major foci/nodes (many of which are barely connected to the CBD)
Describe Vance's Urban Realms Model
It was developed to predict changing urban growth pattern as the automobile became increasingly prevalent and large suburban "realms" emerged. These suburban areas are usually tied to a suburban downtown/ mini CBD and have relative independence from the original CBD
Describe the Latin American City Model (Griffin-Ford Model)
In Latin America, residential quality decreases with distance from the CBD. It also has a zone of maturity, populated with services and a wealthier population; a zone of squatter settlements; and a zone of in situ accretion (a transitional zone that shows signs of a transition to a zone of maturity)
Describe the use of spatial perspective
Geographers look into space and identify, explain, and predict, the human and physical patterns that develop across space over time as well as well as the interconnections among spaces and places
What are the 5 themes of geography?
Location, Human environment interaction, place, and movement
What does location explain?
Location explains where something is on the Earth and the effects that position has on human life
What can only serve as the baseline for latitude?
The equator because it's the only line of latitude that divides the earth into two halves, or hemispheres
What is currently used as the prime meridian and why was it chosen?
Any line of longitude could serve as zero degrees longitude. The prime meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England, was selected when England was a prime naval power.
What is GMT based on?
GMT (Greenwich mean time) is based on the prime meridian
What is cultural ecology?
The study of the aspects and outcomes of human-environment interaction
What is a region?
A spatial unit, or group of places, that share similar characteristics
What is a formal region?
Also called a uniform region, it's an area that has common cultural or physical features
What is a functional region?
Also called a nodal region, it's a group of places linked together by some types of movement/ function
What is a perceptual region?
Also called a vernacular region, it's a group of places linked together because of perceptions about those places
What does place refer to?
Place refers to all of the human and physical attributes in a location
What gives a location a sense of place?
Human and physical traits in a location give it a sense of place
What is spatial interaction?
How places interact with each other
What is friction of distance and when do geographers use it?
When analyzing movement and spatial interaction, geographers often analyze friction of distance, or the degree to which distance interferes or reduces the amount of interaction between two places
When does distance decay occur?
When the intensity of some phenomenon decreases as distance from it increases. For example, the intensity of sound decreases as you walk away from the source.
What is space-time compression?
It's the increasing sense that the world is "becoming smaller." Humans in distant places can feel closer together because of improved communication and transportation technologies, which reduce the friction of distance
Why do geographers create geographic models?
To understand why spatial patterns exist in the ways they do and to predict how spatial patterns might change over time.
What was the DTM based on?
It was largely based on British history
What is physical geography?
Physical geography is primarily concerned with spatial analysis of Earth's natural phenomena
What is human geography?
Human geography is primarily concerned with spatial analysis of human patterns on the Earth and their interactions with the Earth- like where and why patterns of governments, languages, population, and economies exist on the Earth
What do physical and human geography work together to do?
They work together to explain the patterns they see and explain "Why" and "where" things are
What is cartography?
The process of making a map
What is simplification?
When, during the process of cartography, cartographers get rid of unnecessary details
Why does distortion occur?
Because it's impossible to take earth's round surface and project it onto a flat surface distortion during the projection/ flattening process
What are the cardinal directions?
North, south, east, and west
What are the intermediate directions?
Northwest, northeast, southwest, and southeast
What is the Gall-Peter's projection?
The Gall-Peters projection map is equal area because it accurately represents the actual area of the landforms, but distorts other properties (like shape)
What is the Mercator projection?
The Mercator projection is conformal because it accurately represents the shape of landforms, but isn't equal in area because sizes of landforms are drastically distorted (like Greenland is way too big)
What are Equidistant projections?
Equidistant projections maintain distance, but distort other properties
What is the Robinson projection?
The Robinson projection is called a compromise projection because it is neither equal area nor conformal. Instead, all four properties are slightly distorted so that one property is not drastically distorted
What is a cartogram? Give an example
A cartogram is a map that uses space on the map to show a particular variable. Ex: A cartogram showing the frequency of factory labor throughout the world would show a large space taken up by China and a smaller space taken up by the US
What is GIS?
Geographic Information System (GIS) refers to a computer program that stores geographic data and produces maps to show those data in space, often through layering data patterns over each other.
What is remote sensing?
Refers to the collection of information from satellites and distant collection systems not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed
Global Position System (GPS) uses satellite-driven remote sensing to determine exact locations on the global grid
What is primary data?
Geographic data directly collected by the geographer making the map or conducting the study
What is secondary data?
Data that has been collected at an earlier time for a different study (ex: census data) that is now being used by a geographer for a different purpose
What is the level of data aggregation?
The size of geographic units represented on a map
Describe both the coarser and finer levels of data aggregation
The larger the are being represented on the map, the coarser the level of data aggregation. The smaller the area being represented, the finer the level of data aggregation
What does MAUP stand for?
Modifiable areal unit problem
What is MAUP (modifiable areal unit problem) related to and what is it often a source of?
The MAUP is related to data aggregation. MAUP is sometimes a source of error impacting spatial studies that use data that have been aggregated (or grouped)