PH: Cancer Screening Flashcards Preview

Year 3: CSP & PH > PH: Cancer Screening > Flashcards

Flashcards in PH: Cancer Screening Deck (9)
1

What is meant by 'lead-time bias'?

The length of time between the detection of a disease and its usual clinical presentation and diagnosis

2

What is meant by 'length-time bias'?

The apparent increase in survival due to the tendency to selectively detect slowly growing cancers at screening examinations instead of typical cancers

3

Define 'survival'

Measures the average time from diagnosis to death, not the number of deaths. Example: how long someone will live after being diagnosed with breast cancer is their survival

4

Define 'mortality'

Measures the number of deaths in a given population. Example: mortality is when in 1,000 women of 50-54 ages, the number of women who will die from breast cancer each year

5

How can you avoid length-time and lead-time bias in cancer screening results?

By using mortality from the cancer in question as an end-point instead of survival

6

Describe the screening programme for breast cancer

2 view mammography every 3 years women aged 50-69

7

Describe the screening programme for cervical cancer

Cervical smear every 3-5 years for women aged 25-64

8

Describe the screening programme for colorectal cancer

Faecal occult blood examination every 2 years for those aged 50-69

9

What's the biggest risk factor for breast cancer?

Age