Flashcards in Biochemistry nutrition Deck (21)
Fat soluble vitamins
A D E K
Name the following vitamins
5 Pantathenic acid
C Ascorbic acid
Vitamin A deficiency
Scaly dry skin and bitot conjunctiva spots.
Vitamin B1 deficiency
Strongly related to the TCA cycle
LEads to wernicke korsakof syndrome
Wet beri beri
Due to impaired lucose breakdown/ATP depletion.
Wernicke korsakoff syndrome
confusion, opthalmoplegia, and ataxia are the classic triad.
Dry Beri Bery
Secondary to thiamine deficiency (B1)
Polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting.
Wet Beri Beri
High output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy), edema.
Secondary to thiamine (B1) deficiency.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) deficiency
FAD and FMN cofactor deficiency.
Leads to cheilosis (inflammation of lips, scaling and fissures at corners of the mouth)
and corneal vascularization.
"The 2 C's of B2"
Vitamin B3 deficiency
Niacin deficiencyies result in lack of NAD and NADP+ formation. Derived from tryptophan. Synthesis requires B2 and B6.
Deficiency results in glossitis, pellagra.
Niacin B3 deficiency
Dermatitis -> Broad collar rash
Vitamin B5 deficiency
Essential for Co-enzyme A and fatty acid synthesis
Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, and adrenal deficiency occurs.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency
Used for the creation of many catecholamines.
Leads to convulsions, hyperirritibility, peripheral neurppathy and sideroblastic anemias.
B7 (biotin deficiency)
Cofactor for the carboxylation enzymes
deficiencies are rare, but leads to dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis.
Vitamin B9 Folate deficiency
Converted to THF important for DNA and RNA formation.
Leads to macrocytic and megaloblastic anemia. Homocysteine levels will be high in lab results.
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia
formed through animal products and stored in the liver.
requires intrinsic factor to pick up from the intestine.
Vitamin C deficiency
Scurvy - Collagen synthesis deficiency
note also that calcium is important for iron absorption and the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine.
Vitamin D deficiency
Rickets in children
Osteomalacia in adults
Excessive PTH release to make up for lack of calcium absorption.
Vitamin E deficiency
Usually an antioxidant that protects RBC so a deficiency results in hemolytic anemia
Vitamin K deficiency
Important for clotting factors.
Thus lack results in neonatal hemorrhage with an increased PT and PTT
What is kwashiokor malnutrition?
Protein malnutrition resulting in skin lesions and edema due to decreased oncotic pressure with liver malfunction.