Flashcards in Reproductive anatomy/Phys First Aid Deck (33)
Sonic headgehog gene
Produced at the zone of polarizing activity.
Involved in patterning along the anterior/posterior axis.
Mutation can cause holoproencephaly as its involved in brain maturation.
Apical ectoderma ridge necessary for proper organization along the dorsal ventral axis.
apica ectodermal ridge
Stimulates mitosis of the underlying mesoderm providing limb lengthening.
Homeobox (HOX) genes
Involved in segmental organization in craniocaudal direction.
With mutations you end up with limbs in the wrong locations.
What problem can aminoglycosides cause in utero?
Loss of cranial nerve 8
Loss of ear function.
What teratogenic effect do folate antagonists have?
Neural tube defects.
What teratogenic effect does lithium have?
Ebstein abormality which is an atrialized right ventrical.
What teratogenic effects does phenytoin carry?
Fetal hyantoin syndrome
Cleft palate, cardiac defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia.
What teratogenic effect do tetracyclnes cause?
What teratogenic effects does valproate carry?
inhibition of maternal folate absorption leading to neural tube defects.
What effect can maternal diabetes have on the child?
Caudal regression syndrome, congenital heart defects, and neural tube defects.
Which fetal component of the placenta secretes hCG?
What does the umbilical vein drain into?
Supplies oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus and drains into the inferior vena cava via the liver or ductus venosus.
What gives rise to the branchial clefts?
Derived from ectoderm
What give rise to the branchial arches?
Derived from mesodern
What gives rise to the branchial pouches?
Derived from endoderm
What does the first branchial cleft develop into in the adult?
External auditory meatus
What does the second through 4th branchial clefts derive into in the adult?
Temporary cervical sinuses.
Which cranial nerves come from the first branchial arch?
CN V2 and V3 allowing chewing.
Deals with mandible, malleus, incus, mandibular ligament etc.
Which cranial nerves come from the second branchial arch?
Stapes, styloid, lesser horn of hyoid etc...
Muscles of facial expression in this zone so think CN 7.
Which cranial nerves come from the third branchial arch?
Stylopharanygeus comes in here and it is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.
So think CN 9 to swallow.
Which cranial nerve comes from the fourth through 6th branchial arch?
these are all teh swallowing and larynx muscles.
Thus, 4th arch: CN X superior laryngeal branch for swallowing.
Arch 6 has all the larynx intrinsics except for the cricothyroid so CN X recurrent laryngeal branch.
Which internal larynx muscle is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal branch of CN x?
Di George syndrome
Abberent development of 3rd and 4th branchial pouches leading to T-cell deficiency and hypocalcemia (failure of PTH development)
Also associated with cardiac defects
MEN 2A defect
Mutation of germline RET neural crest cells.
Parafollicular cell loss.
Describe female development of genitals
Mesonephric duct degenerates and paramesonephric duct develops.
Paramesonephric = Mullerian duct which develops into female internal structures including fallopian tubes, uterus, upper portion of vagina.
Describe the male development of genitals
SRY gene on Y chromosome produces testis determening factor.
This causes sertoli cells to secrete mullerian inhibitory factor.
Leydig cells then promote mesonephric (wolffian) development
What develops from the wolfian duct?
Seminal vesicles, epididymus, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens
What does the genital tubercle become in men?
Glans penis and corpus cavernosum/spongiosum
Clitoris and vestibular bulbs
What does the urogenital sinus become in men and women?
In men it becomes the bulbourethral glands of cowper and the prostate.
In women it becomes the greater vestibular glands of bartholin and urethral/paraurethral glands of skene.
What do the urogenital folds become in men and women?
In men the fold becomes the ventral shaft of the penis and urethra.
In women the fold becomes the labia minora.
Describe the autonomic control of the male sexual response
Point and shoot
Parasympathetics lead to erection via Nitrous oxide increasing cGMP pathway.
Emmision is via the sympathetic nervous system (hypogastric nerve)
Ejaculation is visceral an somatic pudendal control.