Flashcards in Gastrointestinal First Aid Deck (31)
What artery does the midgut rotate around and during which week?
Superior mesenteric artery during 10th week.
Improper rotation can lead to severe pathologies.
What is annular pancrease?
The ventral pancrease abnormally encircles the 2nd part of the duodenum forming a ring of pancreatic tissu and duodenal narrowing.
The mnemonic SAD PUCKER is used to describe...
Suprarenal (adrenal) glands
Aorta and IVC
Pancrease (except tail)
Colon (descending and ascending)
Esophagus (thoracic portion)
What is the falciform ligament?
Attaches liver to anteror abdominal wall. Contains the ligamentum teres hepatis from the fetal umbilical vein.
Is a derivative of ventral mesentary.
What does the falciform ligament contain and what is it a remnant of?
Contains the ligamentum teres hepatis.
Originated from the fetal umbilical vein.
What structures can be found in the hepatoduodenal ligament?
Connects the liver to the duodenum containing the hepatic triad (Hepatic artery, portal vein, common bile duct)
What does the gastrohepatic ligament connect and what is found inside of it?
Gastrohepatic ligament connects the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach. Contains the gastric arteries and is part of the greater omentm.
What is contained in the gastrocolic ligament?
connects the stomach to the transverse colon.
Containing the gastroepiploic arteries.
Part of the greater omentum.
Describe the intestinal layers from the lumin to the outside,.
Muscularis externa (myenteric and mysners nerve plexus)
Serosa (when intra peritoneal) and adventitia when retroperitoneal (ascending and descending)
Where are brunners glands found and what do they do?
These are found in the duodenum in the crypts of leiberchun. They secrete HCO3-
Where are the peyers patches found?
These are found in the ileum
The ileum also has the largest ammount of mucous production in the intestines.
Which spinal level can the celiac trunk be found?
Which spinal level can the inferior mesenteric artery be found?
What spinal level does the descending aorta bifurcate into the two iliac arteries?
What is superior mesenteric artery syndrome?
When the duodenum gets trapped between the descending aorta and the superior mesenteric artery causing intestinal obstruction.
What is the major arter supply to the foregut? (stoma to the duodenum)
The celiac trunk.
Nerve supply is mostly the Vagus nerve.
What artery supplies the midgut?
The superior mesenteric artery supplying the distal duodenum to the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon.
What artery supplies the hindgut?
The infereior mesenteric artery supplying the distal 1/3 of the transverse colon to upper portion of the rectum.
What are the three branches of the celiac trunk?
The common hepatic
Which vein can lead to esophageal varices in portal hypertension?
The left gastric gives off the esophageal vein.
What is caput medusa?
Blood backflow in the parumbellical veins due to portal hypertension.
Describe Zone 1 of the liver cells
Periportal zone, infected frist by viral hepatitis and ingested toxins.
Describe Zone 2 of the liver cells
This is the intermediate zone and the zone of yellow fever infection.
Describe zone 3 of the liver cells
Pericentral vein/ centrilobular zone
Affected first by ischemia!!!!
cytochrome P450 zon is here
Most sensitive to metabolic toxins and the site of hepatic alcoholic hepatitis.
What composes the common hepatic duct and what composes the common bile duct?
Common hepatic is composed of the left and right hepatic ducts.
The common bile duct is composed of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct (left and right hepatic ducts)
What structure does not run in the femoral sheath?
the femoral nerve!
It spans out immediately after exiting the pelvis!
What is a hiatal hernia?
the stomach herniates through the esophageal hiatus
Where do indirect internal inguinal hernias happen?
These start internally and push through the inguinal ring into the scrotum.
LATERAL TO THE INFERIOR EPIGASTRIC ARTERY.
Where do direct hernias protrude?
These bad boys push through hesselbecks triagnle medially through the abdominal wall medially to the inferior epigastric aa.
Will go through the external/superficial inguinal ring only.
Where does a femoral hernia protrude?
These protrude below the inguinal ligament through the femoral canal below and lateral to the pubic tubercle.
It is most common in females.