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Flashcards in Sketchy Micro Deck (46)
1

Where can the beta lactamase enzyme be found in gram negative microbes?

The periplasmic space

2

What structure is unique to the gram positive cell wall?


Lipoteichoic acid

Gram negative microbes have endotoxin in the outer membrane.

3

this microbe cell wall structure protects against osmotic pressure

Peptidoglycan
Gives rigid support

4

What does lipoteichoic acid in the gram positive cell walls induce in the host?

TNF alpha and IL-1 production.
This is inflammatory.

5

How does LPS in gram negative cells induce a host response

Lipid A induces TNF alpha and IL-1 production
O polysaccharide is the antigen.

It is found in the outer membrane of gram negatives only.

6

What are bacterial spores composed of?

Keratin like coat with dipliclonic acid and peptidoglycan.

7

What are plasmids composed of?

DsDNA

8

What is the glycocalyx?

Mediates adherence to surfaces, especially foreign surfaces such as indwelling catheters.

Composed of polysaccharides.

9

what shape is a coccus?

Spherical shaped.

Bacillus is rod shaped.

10

What are the two pleomorphic microbes?

Chlamydia and Rickettsiae both visualized with giemsa staining.

11

What does PAS staining technique target?

Targets glycogen
Used to diagnose whipple disease
PAS the Sugar

12

Ziehl Neelsen staining

Also known as carbol fuchsin used to stain acid fast bacteria.
Mycobacteria, nocardia,

13

Chocolate agar with factor V (NAD) and factor X (hematin)

This is plating for H. influenza

14

Thayer martin Agar

For neisseria species
Has trimethoprim, colistin, and nystatin.

15

What compounds are in Thayer Martin Agar?

Trimethoprim
Colistin
Nystatin

For neiseria species.

16

Bordet Gengou agar made from potatoes or regan lowe medium composed of charcoal, blood, and antibiotic are used for culturing.....

Used for culturing bordetella pertussis

17

Tellurite agar and Loffler Medium

T. diptheria
Laughing child and big TV

18

Lowenstein Jensen Agar

M. Tuberculosis
"General Store"

19

Eaton Agar requiring cholesteron

M pneumonia

20

MacConkey Agar

For lactose fermenting
Produces acid causing colonies to turn pink.

21

Eosin-Methylene blue EMB agar

E.Coli
Will present with a green metallic sheen,

22

Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine and iron

Used to culture legionella.

23

Sabouraud agar

Fungi culture

24

Protein A

Binds Fc region of IgG preventing opsonization and phagocytosis.

S. Aureus uses this!!!

25

IgA protease

Enzyme cleaves IgA
S. pneumo (shield)
H. Influenzae
Neisseria (Ace card in hat)
Use these

26

M protein

Helps prevent phagocytosis by Strep Pyogenes.

27

Which type of bacteria generally produces ednotoxins?

Generally only be gram negative.

howevere some gram positive can as well. Its important to realize as well that endotoxin is not secreted where as exotoxin is.

28

When comparing endotoxin and exotoxin, which is normally encoded in the bacterial chromosome

Endotoxin.

Exotoxin is coded by plasmids usually.

29

When comparing endo and exotoxin, which needs only a small dose to be fatal

Exotoxin

30

when making vaccines, can endotoxins or exotoxins be made into a vaccine?

Exotoxins can be used to make toxoid vaccines.

No vaccines can be made for endotoxins.

31

When comparing endotoxin and exotoxin, which is heat labile

Exotoxin is destroyed rapidly at high temperatures.

32

How does the shiga toxin work?

Inactivates the 60S ribosome by removing the adenine from rRNA

33

How does heat labile toxin from E.coli work?

Increases cAMP levels leading to watery diarhea via increased chloride secretion

34

How does heat stable toxin from E.coli work?

Heat stable works by creating too much cGMP causing resorption of NaCl and water in the gut.

35

How does edema factor work?

Bacillus anthracis
Causes increase cAMP
Causes the black escar.

36

How does the vibrio cholera work?

Overactivates Gs leading to increased Cl secretion in the gut and H2I efflux.

37

How does pertussis toxin work?

Increases cAMP by disabling Gi impairing phagocytosis.

38

How does Alpha toxin work?

C. Perfrinogen
Is a phospholipase that degrades cell membranes leading to gas gangrene and double zone hemolysis.

39

How does streptolysin work?

S. pyogenes
Degrades cell membrane lysing RBC and contributing to Beta hemolysis.

40

What is bacterial transformation?

Ability to take up naked DNA

Adding deocyribonuclease to the environment will degrade the nakd DNA.

41

What is bacterial conjugation?

Plasmid uptaken via sex!
F+ is plasmid gene require for sex pilus and conjugation

42

What is bacterial transposition?

Segment of DNA that can jump from one location to another.
Can transfer genes from plasmid to chromosomes and vice versa.

43

What is bacterial transduction?

A packaging event
Lytic phage infects bacterium leading to cleavage of bacterial DNA

Just think phages!!!

44

What causes genetic shift/antigenic shift?

Pandemic flus!
Caused by reasortment of genome segments between different animals.

45

What causes genetic drift/ antigenic drift?

Causes epidemics

Changes based on random HA and NA mutations in the flu virus.

46

Name the ToRCHeS infections

These can be passed from mother to fetus
Toxoplasmosis
Rubella
CMV
HIV
HSV-2
Syphillis

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