Flashcards in First aid neuro Deck (74)
What ventricals come out of the fore brain?
The telencephalon contains the alteral ventricals
The diencephalon has the third ventrical
What ventricals come out of the midbrain?
The mesencephalon houses the aqueduct
What ventricals come out of the metencephalon?
The upper fourth ventrical
The pons and cerebellum are here as well.
What ventricals come out of the myelencephalon of the hindbrain?
The bottom of the fourth ventrical.
the medulla is here as well.
What cell type do schwann cells arise from?
Neural crest cells.
What CNS cell type originates from the mesoderm?
Much like marophages.
A soft tuft of hair in the lower vertebral levels is indicative of?
Indicitive of spina bifida oculta which is the failure of the bony spinal canal to close without structural herniation.
Meninges but no neural tissue herniate through the bony defect.
Meninges but no neural tissue herniate through the bony defect.
meninges and neural tissue herniate through the bony defect.
Maternal type 1 diabetes puts a fetus at risk for which brain development issue?
Lack of the forebrain also known as anencephaly.
What is holoprosencephaly?
failure of the left and right hemispheres to separate.
Which cranial nerve is responsible for the taste of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and sensation?
Taste is from CN 7
Sensation is from the mandibular V3 branch of the trigeminal nerve.
note that this part of the tongue is from the 1st and 2nd brachial arches.
Which nerve supplies taste and sensation of the back 1/3 of the tongue?
What about the extreme posterior?
The back of the tongue is from 3rd and 4th branchial arches.
CN 9 provides taste and sensation
While CN 10 provides extreme posterior taste and sensation.
What cranial nerve provides all the motor innervation to the tongue?
CN 12 (Hypoglossal)
What muscle of the tongue is important for retracting and depressing tongue?
What muscle of the tongue is important for protruding the tongue?
What muscle of the tongue is important for drawing the sides of the tongue upward to create a trough for swallowing?
What CN controls the palatoglossus
CN 10 elevates the posterior tonue during swallowing.
The CN 10 portion thats controlling taste
Which CN provide pain sensation to the tongue?
V3, 9, 10
NOTE 7 DOES NOT
What does Nissle staining target?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Useful for neuron staining.
Physical support cells of the CNS
Buffer potassium metabolism, repair, and remove excessive neurotransmitter.
Especially important in the BBB and have a glycogen reserve buffer.
Macrophage of the CNS
HIV infected microglia will form multinucleated giant cells in the CNS.
Each schwann cell only myelinates one PNS neuron.
Derived from neural crest.
Note that these may be injured in guillan barre syndrome. (ascending paralysis)
How are Schwanna cells related to the ear?
A type of schwanomma that results in bilateral hearing loss.
Heavily related to neurofibromatosis type II
Myelinates axons of neurons in the CNS and unlike schwann cells they can myelinate multiple neurons.
These have fried egg like appearance.
Dynamic, fine/light touch and position sense found mostly in hairless skin.
These are in deep layers and ligaments.
Provide vibration and pressure.
Slow adaption are found at fingertips and superficial skin.
Provide deep static touch (shapes and edges) and position sense.
pressure, slippage of objects along surface of skin, joint angle change.
Describe dopamine in huntingtons disease
Describe dopamine in parkinsons
Which portion of the brin is effected by parkinsons?
Substantia nigra of the pars compacta mid brain.
Describe serotonin levels during anxiety and depression
Decreased with anxiety and depression.
Describe Ach in parkinsons and alzheimers disease
In parkinsons it is increased as it is not being inhibited by dopamine
In alzheimers diseas it is decreased (as well as in huntingtons disease)
Where in the brain is serotonin composed?
In the raphe nuclei (pons, medulla, midbrain)
Where in the brain is Ach synthesized?
Basal nucleus of mynert
Where in the brain is GABA synthesize?
Decreases wth anxiety and huntingtons disease.
Nucleus accumbens and septal nucleus
Reward center, pleasure, addiction, fear
Stress and panic
Describe three layers of the blood brain barrier
Tight junctions in endothelial cells
Astrocyte foot processes
Which nuclei make ADH and oxytocin?
Supraoptic nucleus makes ADH
Paraventricular nucleus makes oxytocin.
(Both in the hypothalamus)
Which portion of the hypothalamus controls hunder?
The lateral area
Which area of the hypothalamus controls satiety?
Which area of the hypothalamus deals with body cooling?
The anterior hypothalamus
Which portion of the hypothalamus deals with body heating?
The posterior hypothalamus
What portion of the hypothalamus deals with the sleep cycle?
Supra chiasmatic nucleus
"You need sleep to be charismatic"
Brain waves when awake and eyes are open
Brain waves when awake and eyes closed
Non REM Stage 1
Light sleep with Theta waves
Non REM stage 2
Deeper sleep when bruxism occurs.
Sleep spindles and K complexes
Non- REM stage 3
Deepest non REM sleep when sleep walking, bed wetting, night terrors.
Contain delta wave.
VPL nucleus of the thalamus
Dorsal colum medial lemniscus and the spinothelamic.
Containing proprioception, vibration, pain and temeprature
VPM nucleus of the thalamus
Contains the trigeminal and gustatory pathway for face sensation and taste.
"Makeup goes to the face VPM"
LGN nucleus of the thalamus
CN II dealing with vision
Heads to the calcarine sulcus
Think L for light.
MGN nucleus of the thalumus
Contains the superior olive and inferior colliculus of tectum for hearing.
VL nucleus of the thalamus
Basal ganlgia and cerebellum dealing with motor!
Feeding fleeing fighting feeling and sex.
Correcting excess serum sodium too quickly can leads to
Osmotic demyelination syndrome.
From low to high your pons will die
From high to low your brain will blow (cerebral edema herniation)
Describe the control of the lateral and medial portions of the cerebellum.
Lateral sides deal with extremity movement. Lesions result in falling to ipsilateral side of lesion.
Medial input is dealing with the midline structures leading to whide gait stances, head tilting or nystagmis.
Describe the D1 and D2 pathways in the basal ganglia
Dopamine binds to D1 stimulating the excitatory pathway and D2 inhibiting the inhibitory pathway to allow for increased motion .
Thus in patients with parkinsons (lack dopamine) it makes sense they have difficulty moving.
increased dopamine and decreased gabba and ach in the brain.
Think of the CAG repeats and excessive uncontrolled movements.
Where is Brocas area found in the brain?
Found in the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe.
Brocas aphasia results in inability to speak but can understand statements.
Found superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe.
Patient will be very wordy but none of it will make sense.
They have impaired comprehension as well.
Thaimine (b1) deficiency with excessive alcohol use leads to confusion, ataxia, and nystagmus.
Occurs in the mamillian glands.
Whats the difference between a tremor due to a basal ganglia lesion an a cerebellar lesion.
Basal ganglia lesion will present with a tremor at rest, chorea, and athetosis.
Cerebellum will present with intention tremors and limb ataxia, (ipsilateral to lesion)
Anterograde amnesia leading to the inability to make new memories.
Watershed zones in the brain
Anterior cerebral artery with the middle cerebral artery.
Middle cerebral artery with the posterior cerebral artery.
PICA blow out
Hoarsness and dysphagia.
AICA blow out
Paralysis of the face leading to facial droop
Posterior cerebral artery blow out
Occipital cortex/visual cortex goes out
Leads to contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing!!