Flashcards in C33 - California Deck (162)
How long is the state of California?
Approx. 1100 kilometres from north to south
What is the role of latitude in determining the climate of California vineyards?
What is the biggest cooling influence in California?
The exceptionally cold California Ocean Current
Where are most of the vineyards of California located?
North of Los Angeles
Describe the coastline of California
More mountainous north of LA
What is the climatic role of the mountains in California?
They shield much of the state from the cooling effect of the ocean
What is common evening weather for California?
Cold air, often accompanied by fogs is drawn in from the ocean, lowering night-time temperatures
How and when do Californian fogs dissipate? How does this affect the vineyard climate?
The time it takes for the sun to burn off the fog in the morning, means that the cooling influence extends well into the day
Describe the cooling effect of Californian fogs
Some years, the effect can be so dramatic that grapes can struggle to ripen fully
Where in California does the cooling fog penetrate further inland?
Where there are gaps in the mountains
Give examples of areas of California that act as funnels for the cold coastal air. Why do they have this effect?
Monterey and Santa Barbara Counties
They are valleys at right angles to the ocean
What is the climate like in areas of California that have no exposure to the ocean? Give an example
What is the second climatic feature that links all of California's wine regions?
A lack of rain during the ripening season
How is the lack of rain in California's ripening season counteracted by grape growers?
Using drip irrigation
What has been the effect of the lack of rain during autumn in California?
It has allowed growers to leave grapes on the vine for long into the season
What has been the result on grapes of the longer ripening season in California?
They have concentrated flavours and very high sugar levels
What has been the recent trend in Californian winemaking?
There has recently been a greater appreciation for freshness and many growers are picking slightly earlier
What is the most widely planted black grape in California?
Give an overview of Cabernets from prime sites in California
They can produce extremely expressive wines that rival the quality of the best produced anywhere
What is the profile of California's best Cabernets?
Ripe cassis flavours
Prominent spice aromas from new oak barrels
Some are less rich, with fresher blackcurrant flavours
What is regarded as California's 'own' grape variety?
What style is Zinfandel made into in California?
It's made into a range of styles
What is the biggest viticultural difficulty with Zinfandel?
It tends to ripen unevenly, with the result that harvested fruit can include raisined and underripe grapes
What can be the result on wine of raisined Zinfandel?
Concentrated, full-bodied red wines with high alcohol levels and sometimes some residual sugar
Flavours include red and black fruits, dried berries and liquorice
Some display subtle herbaceous qualities from underripe grapes
How are underripe/early-picked Zinfandel grapes often used in California?
For large volumes of rosé wine
How are Zinfandel-based rosés of California commonly labelled?
Describe White Zinfandel
Pale in colour
Low in alcohol
What is the third most widely planted grape of California?
Give an overview of Merlot-based wines in California
Approachable wines with soft tannins and ripe black fruit