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Flashcards in C33 - California Deck (162)
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1

How long is the state of California?

Approx. 1100 kilometres from north to south

2

What is the role of latitude in determining the climate of California vineyards?

Relatively small

3

What is the biggest cooling influence in California?

The exceptionally cold California Ocean Current

4

Where are most of the vineyards of California located?

North of Los Angeles

5

Describe the coastline of California

More mountainous north of LA

6

What is the climatic role of the mountains in California?

They shield much of the state from the cooling effect of the ocean

7

What is common evening weather for California?

Cold air, often accompanied by fogs is drawn in from the ocean, lowering night-time temperatures

8

How and when do Californian fogs dissipate? How does this affect the vineyard climate?

The time it takes for the sun to burn off the fog in the morning, means that the cooling influence extends well into the day

9

Describe the cooling effect of Californian fogs

Some years, the effect can be so dramatic that grapes can struggle to ripen fully

10

Where in California does the cooling fog penetrate further inland?

Where there are gaps in the mountains

11

Give examples of areas of California that act as funnels for the cold coastal air. Why do they have this effect?

Monterey and Santa Barbara Counties
They are valleys at right angles to the ocean

12

What is the climate like in areas of California that have no exposure to the ocean? Give an example

Hot
Central Valley

13

What is the second climatic feature that links all of California's wine regions?

A lack of rain during the ripening season

14

How is the lack of rain in California's ripening season counteracted by grape growers?

Using drip irrigation

15

What has been the effect of the lack of rain during autumn in California?

It has allowed growers to leave grapes on the vine for long into the season

16

What has been the result on grapes of the longer ripening season in California?

They have concentrated flavours and very high sugar levels

17

What has been the recent trend in Californian winemaking?

There has recently been a greater appreciation for freshness and many growers are picking slightly earlier

18

What is the most widely planted black grape in California?

Cabernet Sauvignon

19

Give an overview of Cabernets from prime sites in California

They can produce extremely expressive wines that rival the quality of the best produced anywhere

20

What is the profile of California's best Cabernets?

Full-bodied
Ripe cassis flavours
Prominent spice aromas from new oak barrels
Some are less rich, with fresher blackcurrant flavours

21

What is regarded as California's 'own' grape variety?

Zinfandel

22

What style is Zinfandel made into in California?

It's made into a range of styles

23

What is the biggest viticultural difficulty with Zinfandel?

It tends to ripen unevenly, with the result that harvested fruit can include raisined and underripe grapes

24

What can be the result on wine of raisined Zinfandel?

Concentrated, full-bodied red wines with high alcohol levels and sometimes some residual sugar
Flavours include red and black fruits, dried berries and liquorice
Some display subtle herbaceous qualities from underripe grapes

25

How are underripe/early-picked Zinfandel grapes often used in California?

For large volumes of rosé wine

26

How are Zinfandel-based rosés of California commonly labelled?

White Zinfandel

27

Describe White Zinfandel

Fruity
Pale in colour
Medium-sweet
Low in alcohol

28

What is the third most widely planted grape of California?

Merlot

29

Give an overview of Merlot-based wines in California

Approachable wines with soft tannins and ripe black fruit

30

Which area of California has the largest plantings of Merlot?

San Joaquin in Central Valley