Flashcards in C4 - The Vine Deck (61)
What are the most important species in modern viticulture?
Which vine species produces nearly all the grapes used in winemaking?
Why are American vines rarely used to produce grapes for winemaking?
Their grapes are widely considered to have unattractive flavours
Why are American grapevine species important?
They are resistant to Phylloxera and consequently widely used to produce rootstocks onto which Vinifera vines are grafted
What are the principal differences between grape varieties?
Colour and flavour
What other factors may a grape grower be concerned with when selecting a grape variety?
Budding and ripening times
Resistance to certain diseases
Which two methods may a grower use to preserve the unique qualities of a grape variety?
What is a cutting?
A section of a vine shoot that is planted and then grows as a new plant
Which method of growing new plants is most commonly used in commercial nurseries?
Where does layering take place?
In the vineyard
A cane is bent down and a section of it is buried in the ground, the cane tip points upwards out of the ground.
The buried section takes root and when this happens, the linking cane is cut.
Which propagation method is more common? Why?
Due to the risk of phylloxera
How can several plants be identified as one variety?
They can all trace their lineage back through a series of cuttings and/or layering to a single plant
What other term can be used for vine variety?
Which word can be used instead of variety?
Why may there still be variations between vines despite their being technically the same variety?
Mutations sometimes occur when the vines grow
Which vines are more likely to be selected for further propagation?
Those which have developed positive/beneficial mutations
What is clonal selection?
Choosing individual vines with beneficial mutations
Each individual vine or group of vines that shows a particular set of unique characteristics is known as a ...
What will a grape grower often specify when ordering new plants from a nursery?
The clone as well as the variety
List two varieties which are the result of more extreme mutations from Pinot Noir?
Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc
What is cross-fertilisation?
A method of creating a new variety under controlled conditions
Pollen from the male part of the flower of one Vine is transferred to the female part of the flower of another vine and fertilisation occurs. The pollinated flowers develops into a grape with seeds. If the seed is planted and grows, it will be a new variety.
Can a grape's characteristics be predicted when cross pollination occurs?
No, there is no way of knowing
Why is it costly and time-consuming to create a new variety?
Hundreds of seeds are required
Many seedlings fail in the first year
Producers must wait 2-3 years before the survivors flower and produce fruit
It takes longer to prove the value of the new variety
How is a crossing defined?
A new variety which is produced from two parents of the same species
Give an example of a crossing
Cabernet Sauvignon (Cab Franc x Sauvignon Blanc)
What is a hybrid?
A vine whose parents come from two different vine species
What are hybrids and American vine crossings most commonly used for?