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Flashcards in C4 - The Vine Deck (61)
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1

What are the most important species in modern viticulture?

Vitis Vinifera
American vines

2

Which vine species produces nearly all the grapes used in winemaking?

Vitis Vinifera

3

Why are American vines rarely used to produce grapes for winemaking?

Their grapes are widely considered to have unattractive flavours

4

Why are American grapevine species important?

They are resistant to Phylloxera and consequently widely used to produce rootstocks onto which Vinifera vines are grafted

5

What are the principal differences between grape varieties?

Colour and flavour

6

What other factors may a grape grower be concerned with when selecting a grape variety?

Budding and ripening times
Resistance to certain diseases

7

Which two methods may a grower use to preserve the unique qualities of a grape variety?

Cutting
Layering

8

What is a cutting?

A section of a vine shoot that is planted and then grows as a new plant

9

Which method of growing new plants is most commonly used in commercial nurseries?

Cutting

10

Where does layering take place?

In the vineyard

11

Describe layering

A cane is bent down and a section of it is buried in the ground, the cane tip points upwards out of the ground.
The buried section takes root and when this happens, the linking cane is cut.

12

Which propagation method is more common? Why?

Cutting
Due to the risk of phylloxera

13

How can several plants be identified as one variety?

They can all trace their lineage back through a series of cuttings and/or layering to a single plant

14

What other term can be used for vine variety?

Grape variety

15

Which word can be used instead of variety?

Cultivar

16

Why may there still be variations between vines despite their being technically the same variety?

Mutations sometimes occur when the vines grow

17

Which vines are more likely to be selected for further propagation?

Those which have developed positive/beneficial mutations

18

What is clonal selection?

Choosing individual vines with beneficial mutations

19

Each individual vine or group of vines that shows a particular set of unique characteristics is known as a ...

Clone

20

What will a grape grower often specify when ordering new plants from a nursery?

The clone as well as the variety

21

List two varieties which are the result of more extreme mutations from Pinot Noir?

Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc

22

What is cross-fertilisation?

A method of creating a new variety under controlled conditions

23

Describe cross-fertilisation

Pollen from the male part of the flower of one Vine is transferred to the female part of the flower of another vine and fertilisation occurs. The pollinated flowers develops into a grape with seeds. If the seed is planted and grows, it will be a new variety.

24

Can a grape's characteristics be predicted when cross pollination occurs?

No, there is no way of knowing

25

Why is it costly and time-consuming to create a new variety?

Hundreds of seeds are required
Many seedlings fail in the first year
Producers must wait 2-3 years before the survivors flower and produce fruit
It takes longer to prove the value of the new variety

26

How is a crossing defined?

A new variety which is produced from two parents of the same species

27

Give an example of a crossing

Cabernet Sauvignon (Cab Franc x Sauvignon Blanc)

28

What is a hybrid?

A vine whose parents come from two different vine species

29

What are hybrids and American vine crossings most commonly used for?

Rootstocks

30

What is Phylloxera?

An insect that is native to North America which Vinifera is unable to defend itself against