What is the one factor influencing a plant's growth that does not vary?
How is a region's climate defined?
The annual pattern of temperature, sunlight and rainfall averaged out over several years
How is weather defined?
The annual variation that happens relative to the climatic average
Below what temperature is it too cold for a vine's cells to function?
10 degrees C
What happens to a vine above 22 degrees?
The vine's cell start to consume more sugar than the vine can produce
In order to ripen grapes successfully, the vine needs the average temperature to be between...
16 and 21 degrees C
What determines which vines will thrive within a certain region?
What has an impact on each stage of a vine's cycle?
What occurs later in a cooler region?
...and...can be disrupted in a cooler temperature, doing what to yields?
Flowering and fruitset.
If temperature is cool during ripening, what happens to acidity and sugar levels?
Acid falls less and less sugar is accumulated
What may happen to black grapes in cool growing conditions?
They will produce wines which are overly astringent and herbaceous (a result of being physiologically unripe)
Why can white grapes cope with cooler conditions better?
They have no need for ripe tannins and wines are balanced with higher acidity levels
List in order the key stages of a vine's growth cycle...
Early shoot and leaf growth
Flowering and fruit set
List the factors affecting annual temperature...
How does latitude affect a vine's temperature needs?
The further from the equator, the cooler an area is on average.
What approximate latitudes are best for viticulture? Why?
30 - 50 degrees. These latitudes satisfy a vine's need for warmth, but also winter dormancy.
How does temperature drop with altitude?
0.6 degrees C with every 100m increase in altitude
How do ocean currents affect climate/weather?
By cooling or warming the air above and around them
How does fog affect temperature? List two examples of areas where this is an important factor...
It cools an area.
California and Casablanca in Chile.
What kind of soil absorbs and reradiates the sun's heat?
Darker soils or those with a higher stone and rock content
How does soil with a high water content affect ripening?
It delays it, as it takes more energy to heat the soil and heat from the vines is conducted away more quickly
How does aspect affect ripening? Give an example of a region which benefits particularly from a good aspect...
The side of a slope facing towards the equator receives more sunlight and heat.
The Mosel Valley.
How is continentality defined?
It is the temperature difference between winter and summer
What is the main factor affecting continentality? Why?
Proximity of large bodies of water.
They cool down and heat up slower than land masses.
Name the four main inputs required for a vine
What gives a vine heat?
Sunlight and soil
Where does a vine get light from?
The sun and the soil
How does a vine get water?
Rainfall, irrigation and water stored in soil/bedrock
Where does a vine get its nutrients?