Flashcards in C8 - White And Sweet Winemaking Deck (162)
What considerations need to be made when making white wine?
Clarity of the juice
Fermentation temperature and vessel
Post-fermentation and maturation options
Clarification and stabilisation
During white winemaking, what is the principal reason the juice spends little time in contact with the skins?
To reduce the risk of oxidation
What happens in whit winemaking once the grapes arrive at the winery and are sorted?
The grapes are crushed
Free run juice is separated off
Remaining grape mass is sent to the press
Why might a white winemaker choose to use whole bunches of uncrushed grapes in the press?
To further limit the contact between skins and juice
The process is gentle
It reduces the risk of oxidation
What kind of wine is created by using whole bunches?
It can lead to wines with more purity and delicacy
Why might a white winemaker choose to keep juice in contact with skins for a short time? Explain how this is done...
To increase flavour intensity and texture in certain aromatic varieties
It happens at a sufficiently cool temperature to inhibit fermentation
It happens for only a few hours
Why will a winemaker want to clarify the pressed juice after pressing?
Untreated, the juice contains fragments of cells from the skin and pulp. These can result in unpleasant aromas forming and fermentation can stop prematurely
How are the post-pressing particles removed from juice prior to fermentation?
Using the same techniques as employed for pre-bottling fining (settling, centrifugation, fining and filtration)
Why may a winemaker want to keep some of the particles left after pressing?
It's thought that it makes the completed wine less susceptible to oxidation
It adds complexity and a richer texture
Which kinds of wines are rarely fermented with particles still present? Why?
Wines that are intended to show pure varietal character
Because of the risk of off-flavours forming
What is the optimum temperature range for fermenting white wine?
12 - 22C
What is the result on the wine of fermenting at too low a temperature?
It creates pear-drop aromas
It fails to capture varietal fruit aromas
What is the benefit of fermenting white wines at higher temperatures?
It encourages more complex, non-fruit aromas to develop
What is the risk when fermenting white wine at higher temperatures?
Varietal fruit characteristics can be lost
What is the benefit of fermenting white wines in stainless steel?
Temperature can usually be easily controlled
Can white wine be fermented at optimum temperatures in barrels? Explain
They are usually small and housed in cool cellars, meaning that they dissipate their heat easily
What sort of fermentation temperature does white wine normally run at when using barrels?
The higher end of the scale
What are the three main decision a white winemaker may be faced with directly after fermentation?
Whether to mature in oak, or store in inert vessels, with or without oaks staves/chips
Whether to use fine lees for texture and flavour
Whether to allow or block MLF
What are the three main reasons why a white winemaker may blend their wine?
Enhance the balance
Create a certain style
What may be the blending focus of a white winemaker whose wines are based on primary fruit flavours?
To ensure consistency
What is likely to be the blending focus of a white winemaker who works chiefly with non-aromatic varieties?
To enhance complexity
How may a white winemaker practically achieve complexity through blending?
By using varying amounts of lees contact, MLF and oak treatment on different batches of wine and blending them for complexity
How will clarity and stability be achieved in most white wines?
By undergoing fining and/or filtration
Why is clarity more important in white wine than red?
Their relative paleness makes haze or sediment more apparent
For which white wines is sterile filtration most important? Why?
Those with residual sugar
They are more at risk of microbiological infection
From the consumer's point of view, what are the advantages of high-volume, inexpensive white wines?
From a trusted source
Describe the labelling of high-volume, inexpensive white wines
Some are made from a single variety and state the name of the variety on the label
Why are high-volume, inexpensive whites most likely to be blends?
It can be easier to create high volumes this way
How are inexpensive white blends usually labelled?
E.g. 'Dry White' or 'Fruity White'