Flashcards in C9 - Red and Rose Winemaking Deck (148)
The vast majority of fruit used in red winemaking is...and...
What do some red winemakers do after crushing?
Leave the grapes to macerate for a period of a low temperature
What is the name of the process of cool maceration of red grapes after crushing?
Cold maceration/cold soaking
What is the purpose of cold soaking?
To extract colour and flavour compounds as tannins are more soluble in alcohol, therefore not readily extracted during fermentation
Between what temperatures does red wine fermentation usually occur?
20C - 32C (depending on style)
Why are the temperatures of fermentation higher for red wine than for white?
It's necessary to aid extraction of colour, flavour and tannin
Beyond what temperature should red wine fermentation not go? Why?
This may kill the yeast
How may a red winemaker influence the amounts of colour, flavour and tannin extracted during fermentation?
By precisely controlling temperature
Describe how tannin levels may be reduced in red wines
By reducing the temperature near the end of fermentation
What will happen to a fermenting red wine if left to itself?
A thick mass of pulp and skins will form on its surface
What is the mass of pulp and skins called, that forms on a fermenting red wine?
What will be the result if the cap is left to float on a wine?
Little colour, flavour or tannin will be extracted from it
How may the problem of the cap be managed?
Using cap management techniques
How may cap management techniques be used to control levels of extraction?
By altering the duration of each technique
By altering the number of times they are practiced each day
What is the traditional method of punching down?
The cap would be punched down by hand with paddles on the end of sticks
What was the big problem with the traditional method of punching-down?
There was a danger for the workers of CO2 intoxication
Why is the danger of manual punching-down not really a problem anymore?
The same effect can now be achieved with mechanical paddles
Which cap management technique is particularly effective at extracting colour and tannin?
What is the potential problem when punching down, mechanical or otherwise? When is it most important to consider this/why?
It can be too effective at extracting colour and tannin
At the end of fermentation
Tannins are more easily extracted at this point
What is pumping over?
It involved drawing off juice from the bottom of the vat and pumping it onto the top of the fermenting wine
What is pumping over particularly good at?
It is a good way of oxygenating the juice and dissipating heat
Describe Rack and Return
The fermenting juice is drained from the vessel into another one, leaving the cap behind
The juice is then pumped back over the cap
What is the big disadvantage of Rack and Return? How is this managed?
It can be very extractive
It is only performed once or twice during a fermentation
What is Rack and Return particularly good at?
Describe Rotary Fermentation
Fermentation takes place in rotating horizontal tanks
What is the intention of Rotary Fermentation?
To keep the juice in constant contact with the skins
What effect does cap management techniques have on the fermentation vessel that's chosen?
They are usually large and open-topped
What kind of vessel should NOT be used for fermenting red wines? Why?
It would be almost impossible to maintain sufficient contact between the skins and the juice
What is the main aim of post-fermentation maceration?
To extract further tannin