Potassium shifts and electrolyte disturbances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Potassium shifts and electrolyte disturbances Deck (14)
1

Digitalis

Blocks sodium/potassium ATPase

Shifts potassium out of the cell causing hyperkalemia.

2

What effect does hyperosmolarity have on serum potassium levels?

Shifts K+ out of the cell causing hyperkalemia

3

What effect does cell lysis have on serum potassium levels?

Cause potassium to shift out of cells.
Look for this in crush injuries!

4

What effect does acidosis have on serum potassium levels?

Increase potassium shifts out of the cells.

5

What effect do beta blockers have on serum potassium levels?

Cause potassium to shift out of the cell.

6

Describe the effect of beta adrenergic agonists

increase K+ reabsorption via aldosterone release!

7

What occurs with K+ deficiency?

U waves on ECG
Flattened T waves
Arrhythmias
Muscle spasms

8

What symptoms are seen with calcium deficiency?

Tetany
Seizures
QT prolongation
Think: Stones, Bones, Groans (abd,), thrones (urinary freq), and psychiatric overtones.

9

What symptoms are seen with hypomagnesia?

Tetany
Torsades des pointes
Hypokalemia

10

What symptoms are seen with hypophosphatermia?

Bone loss (increased Vit D and PTH)
Osteomalacia - Adults
Rickets - Children

11

What CO2 levels correspond to respiratory acidosis?

If the PCO2 is greater than 40 mmHg AND THE PH IS < 7.35 then one should be suspicious of respiratory acidosis.

12

The pH is <7.35 and PCO2 is less than 40

Thus the acidity is metabolic with compensaton via hyper ventilation

13

What is the anion gap equation?

Na+ - (Cl + HCO3) = Anion gap

14

What increases the anion gap?

MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Propylene glycol
Iron tablets or Isoniazid
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol
Salicylates

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