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Psychiatry pro +1700 > Intellectual Disabilities > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intellectual Disabilities Deck (62):
1

What is the definition of ID?

Onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits

2

What are the 2 criteria for ID?

-Deficits in intellectual functioning
-Deficits in function confirmed by clinical assessment / WAIS

3

When does ID begin?

During the developmental period

4

What are the IQ ranges for mild, moderate, severe, profound and unspecified for ID?

Mild = [55-70]
Moderate = [35 -55]
Severe = 25-35
Profound = 20-25
Unspecified = untestable

5

What is the SE of WAIS?

5 points

6

What is the score that indicates MR on the WAIS scale? What else must be present to correctly diagnose this?

75
Limitations in adaptive functioning

7

What are the issues with IQ testing? (3)

-Marked discrepancy between scores and verbal testing
-Testing must be normed for socio-economic background
-Co-occurring disorders of communication or motor/function may mislead

8

What is the adaptive functioning bit of mental testing?

Personal independence and social responsibility

9

Can you use education records, mental health evals to diagnose ID?

Yes

10

Are the specifiers for ID more influenced by IQ scores, or adaptive functioning?

Adaptive functioning

11

True or false: at the preschool level, there is no difference between mild MR pts and non-MR patients

True

12

What are the mild ID pts responses to problems, as compared to their peers?

Express more concrete solutions compared to age

13

What are the two ways to assess for intellectual disabilities?

-Clinical assessment
-Standardized tests

14

Deficits in adaptive functioning in the diagnosis of MR is defined as having problems in what three areas without ongoing support?

-Communication
-independent living
-social participation

15

True or false: individual profiles based on neuropsychological testing, is better than a single IQ score for diagnosing MR

True

16

What is meant by the term adaptive functioning? What is diagnostic for MR in this area?

Personal independence and social responsibility

Met when one domain is sufficiently impaired that ongoing support is needed

17

What are the three major areas of adaptive functioning?

-Conceptual/academic
-Socially
-Practically

18

Specifiers in diagnosing MR are based largely on what component of the diagnostic criteria?

Adaptive functioning, not IQ scores

19

What are the social characteristics of mild MR? (3)

-Immature perception of peer's social cues
-Problems with regulating behavior
-Limited understanding of risk and judgement

20

What is the major social issue with mild MR patients?

the person is at risk of being manipulated

21

True or false: for patients with mild MR, they are largely function independently in terms of personal care and complex ADLs

True

22

What are the three major areas where pts with mild MR need help functioning?

-Health care
-Legal decisions
-Raising a family

23

What is true regarding the conceptual domain for moderate MR pts?

Conceptual skills lag behind peers all through development

24

True or false: at the preschool level, there is no difference between moderate MR pts and non-MR patients

False--skils are slow to develop

25

What level of education are pts with moderate MR at?

elementary level

26

What are the major issues in the social domain for moderate MR?(3)

-Much less complex social interaction
-Capacity for relationships is limited
-Work settings need significant social and communication support

27

True or false: with extended period of teaching, time, and reminders, an individual with moderate MR may become independent

True

28

True or false: maladaptive behavior is common in pts with moderate MR

False--significant minority

29

What is the major characteristic of the conceptual domain with severe MR?

Caretakers provide extensive supports throughout life

30

What are the social characteristics of severe MR?

-Significant difficulties communicating
-Family and familiar others offer support and help

31

At what level of MR is support needed for all ADLs?

Severe

32

True or false: in pts with severe MR, maladaptive behavior, including self-injury, is present in the majority of patients

False--significant minority

33

What is the defining characteristic of the conceptual processes in profound MR?

Physical world, rather than the symbolic

34

What is the defining characteristic of the social processes in profound MR?

Non-verbal, non-symbolic communication

35

What is the defining characteristic of the practical domain of profound MR?

Dependent on all aspects of daily physical care, health, and safety

36

True or false: maladaptive behaviors are present in only a significant minority of patients with profound MR

True

37

True or false: MR is a generally homogenous condition

False--very heterogenous

38

What specific personality or behavioral disorders are associated with MR?

None

39

What is the major mental health comorbidity with MR?

Suicide risk

40

What is fragile X syndrome? Cause?

-CGG expansion in FMR1 on X chromosome

41

What are the facial features of fragile X syndrome?

-Long face
-Protruding ears
-High arched palate

42

What are the foot features of fragile X pts?

Flat feet

43

What are the testicular features of fragile X pts?

Macrorrhizum

44

What is the cause of Prader-Willi syndrome? Cause? S/sx?

-Paternal chromosome deletion on chromosome 15q
-Hyperphagia, speech delay, hypogonadism

45

What is the cause of Angelman syndrome? S/sx?

deletion of maternal copy of chromosome 15
-Happy puppet

46

What is the cause of William's syndrome? S/sx?

-deletion of parts of chromosome 7,
-Elfin face, developmental delay, supravalvular aortic stenosis, highly sociable

47

When do Down syndrome pts develop Alzheimer's type dementia?

40s

48

MR must occur before what age?

18

49

What is meant by the fact that intellectual disabilities are not static?

training can alter and improve adaptive skills

50

True or false: there is a familial pattern of MR

False--do not exist d/t the heterogeneity of the disorder

51

Early onset of delay in motor language or social milestones in the first 2 years of life = what level of MR?

Severe

52

School age onset with difficulty in academic is characteristic of what level of MR?

mild

53

Global delay for those under what age may eventually meet the criteria for MR?

5 years old

54

What is the cause of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome? S/sx?

Defect in HGRPT, which converts hypoxanthine to IMP and GMP

-Hyperuricemia
-Gout
-Pissed off
-Retardation
-dysTonia

55

What percent of MR has no clear etiology?

30-40%

56

More or less severe MR has more identifiable etiologies?

More severe = more identifiable etiologies

57

What is social drift?

MR pts are more likely to drift into the lower socioeconomic classes

58

What is the male:female ratio of mild and severe MR?

1.6:1 Mild
1.2:1 Severe

59

True or false: the diagnosis of MR is made whenever the diagnostic criteria are met

True

60

What is the difference in MR and learning/communication disorders?

MR is global

61

Why does autism need continuous reassessment over the developmental period?

IQ scores are liable to change

62

The prevalence of comorbid conditions like mental health disorders, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy may be (__)x the general population.

3-4x