Flashcards in Intellectual Disabilities Deck (62):
What is the definition of ID?
Onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits
What are the 2 criteria for ID?
-Deficits in intellectual functioning
-Deficits in function confirmed by clinical assessment / WAIS
When does ID begin?
During the developmental period
What are the IQ ranges for mild, moderate, severe, profound and unspecified for ID?
Mild = [55-70]
Moderate = [35 -55]
Severe = 25-35
Profound = 20-25
Unspecified = untestable
What is the SE of WAIS?
What is the score that indicates MR on the WAIS scale? What else must be present to correctly diagnose this?
Limitations in adaptive functioning
What are the issues with IQ testing? (3)
-Marked discrepancy between scores and verbal testing
-Testing must be normed for socio-economic background
-Co-occurring disorders of communication or motor/function may mislead
What is the adaptive functioning bit of mental testing?
Personal independence and social responsibility
Can you use education records, mental health evals to diagnose ID?
Are the specifiers for ID more influenced by IQ scores, or adaptive functioning?
True or false: at the preschool level, there is no difference between mild MR pts and non-MR patients
What are the mild ID pts responses to problems, as compared to their peers?
Express more concrete solutions compared to age
What are the two ways to assess for intellectual disabilities?
Deficits in adaptive functioning in the diagnosis of MR is defined as having problems in what three areas without ongoing support?
True or false: individual profiles based on neuropsychological testing, is better than a single IQ score for diagnosing MR
What is meant by the term adaptive functioning? What is diagnostic for MR in this area?
Personal independence and social responsibility
Met when one domain is sufficiently impaired that ongoing support is needed
What are the three major areas of adaptive functioning?
Specifiers in diagnosing MR are based largely on what component of the diagnostic criteria?
Adaptive functioning, not IQ scores
What are the social characteristics of mild MR? (3)
-Immature perception of peer's social cues
-Problems with regulating behavior
-Limited understanding of risk and judgement
What is the major social issue with mild MR patients?
the person is at risk of being manipulated
True or false: for patients with mild MR, they are largely function independently in terms of personal care and complex ADLs
What are the three major areas where pts with mild MR need help functioning?
-Raising a family
What is true regarding the conceptual domain for moderate MR pts?
Conceptual skills lag behind peers all through development
True or false: at the preschool level, there is no difference between moderate MR pts and non-MR patients
False--skils are slow to develop
What level of education are pts with moderate MR at?
What are the major issues in the social domain for moderate MR?(3)
-Much less complex social interaction
-Capacity for relationships is limited
-Work settings need significant social and communication support
True or false: with extended period of teaching, time, and reminders, an individual with moderate MR may become independent
True or false: maladaptive behavior is common in pts with moderate MR
What is the major characteristic of the conceptual domain with severe MR?
Caretakers provide extensive supports throughout life
What are the social characteristics of severe MR?
-Significant difficulties communicating
-Family and familiar others offer support and help
At what level of MR is support needed for all ADLs?
True or false: in pts with severe MR, maladaptive behavior, including self-injury, is present in the majority of patients
What is the defining characteristic of the conceptual processes in profound MR?
Physical world, rather than the symbolic
What is the defining characteristic of the social processes in profound MR?
Non-verbal, non-symbolic communication
What is the defining characteristic of the practical domain of profound MR?
Dependent on all aspects of daily physical care, health, and safety
True or false: maladaptive behaviors are present in only a significant minority of patients with profound MR
True or false: MR is a generally homogenous condition
What specific personality or behavioral disorders are associated with MR?
What is the major mental health comorbidity with MR?
What is fragile X syndrome? Cause?
-CGG expansion in FMR1 on X chromosome
What are the facial features of fragile X syndrome?
-High arched palate
What are the foot features of fragile X pts?
What are the testicular features of fragile X pts?
What is the cause of Prader-Willi syndrome? Cause? S/sx?
-Paternal chromosome deletion on chromosome 15q
-Hyperphagia, speech delay, hypogonadism
What is the cause of Angelman syndrome? S/sx?
deletion of maternal copy of chromosome 15
What is the cause of William's syndrome? S/sx?
-deletion of parts of chromosome 7,
-Elfin face, developmental delay, supravalvular aortic stenosis, highly sociable
When do Down syndrome pts develop Alzheimer's type dementia?
MR must occur before what age?
What is meant by the fact that intellectual disabilities are not static?
training can alter and improve adaptive skills
True or false: there is a familial pattern of MR
False--do not exist d/t the heterogeneity of the disorder
Early onset of delay in motor language or social milestones in the first 2 years of life = what level of MR?
School age onset with difficulty in academic is characteristic of what level of MR?
Global delay for those under what age may eventually meet the criteria for MR?
5 years old
What is the cause of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome? S/sx?
Defect in HGRPT, which converts hypoxanthine to IMP and GMP
What percent of MR has no clear etiology?
More or less severe MR has more identifiable etiologies?
More severe = more identifiable etiologies
What is social drift?
MR pts are more likely to drift into the lower socioeconomic classes
What is the male:female ratio of mild and severe MR?
True or false: the diagnosis of MR is made whenever the diagnostic criteria are met
What is the difference in MR and learning/communication disorders?
MR is global
Why does autism need continuous reassessment over the developmental period?
IQ scores are liable to change