Neurocognitive Disorders Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry pro +1700 > Neurocognitive Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurocognitive Disorders Deck (87):
1

What are the diagnostic criteria / domains for neurocognitive decline? (6)

Decline in:
-Language
-Complex attention
-Perceptual motor
-Executive function
-Learning and memory
-Social cognition

-(LAPELS)

2

What is the difference between major and minor cognitive decline?

Major = significant impairment

Minor = modest decline

3

Dementia is unusual to see prior to what age?

65

4

True or false: very few cases of dementia are reversible

True

5

What is the most common cause of dementia?

Alzheimer's disease

6

What areas of the brain (lobes) are affected with AD?

Parietal and temporal lobes

7

True or false: dementia is a normal part of aging

False

8

What are the genes that are associated with AD?

Presenilin 1 and 2
amyloid precursor protein

9

What is the gene that is associated with early onset AD?

ApoE4

10

What is the gene that is protective against AD?

Apo E2

11

True or false: early onset AD has a strong genetic component

True

12

What is the natural h/o AD?

Gradual onset and progression

13

What are the two major questions that are used to screen for AD?

-lost in a well known area
-Cannot pay bills

14

What is the neurotransmitter that is changed with AD?

Decreased ACh

15

What are the histological findings of AD?

-Neurofibrillary tangles
-Neuritic plaques
-Excess amyloid

16

What is the average survival rate of AD?

8-10 years

17

What is the function of the Tau proteins?

Maintaining neuronal function (microtubule associated proteins)

18

What areas of the brain are particularly affected with AD?

Hippocampus

19

What is Binswanger's disease? Which part of the brain is usually affected?

Multi Infarct dementia that is usually subcortical, but progresses to cortical dementia

20

What disease usually coexists with AD?

Vascular disease

21

What is the second most common type of dementia?

Vascular disease

22

What are the psychosis s/sx of lewy body dementia?

-Visual hallucinations/ delusions

23

What are the s/sx of PD? (TRAP)

-Tremor (resting)
-Rigidity
-Akinesia
-Postural instability

24

What is the treatment for lewy body disease? What should never be used?

Cholinesterase inhibitors

Never use antipsychotics

25

What is Pick's disease?

Frontotemporal dementia--selective atrophy that involved the temporal and/or frontal lobes of the brain

26

When does frontotemporal dementia usually present, relative to AD?

50s as opposed to 70s for AD

27

What are the first s/sx of frontotemporal dementia?

Disinhibition and language problems

28

When do s/sx of CTE usually present?

8-10 years following repeated concussions

29

What are the usual s/sx of CTE?

-Disorientation, HA
-Memory loss, poor judgement
-Progressive dementia

30

What is the major difference between cortical and subcortical dementia?

Cortical = global loss
Subcortical is not

31

What are the four types of subcortical dementia?

-PD
-MS
-HD
-Vascular disease

32

What is the inheritance pattern of HD?

AD

33

What is the trinucleotide repeat in HD? What chromosome? What gene?

-CAG
-Chromosome 4
-BDNF gene

34

What part of the brain is specifically affected with HD? What happens to neurotransmitters here?

Caudate loses ACh and GABA

("Hunt 4 an animal and put it in a CAGe")

35

What are the usual first s/sx of HD?

Depression, flat affect
Rapid speech

36

What is the classic triad of normal pressure hydrocephalus?

"Wacky, wobbly, and wet"

-Confusion/delirium
-Ataxic gait
-Urinary incontinence

37

How do you diagnose NPH?

Brain scan and/or LP

38

What is the treatment for NPH?

VP Shunt (ventriculoperitoneal shunt)

39

What are the causes of static encephalopathy? (4)

-TBI
-Hypoxic Brain injury
-Korsakoff syndrome
-Post infectious

40

What is the classic triad of Wernicke's encephalopathy?

-Delirium
-ocular change
-Gait disturbance

41

What is the key symptom of Wernicke's encephalopathy?

confabulation

42

What is Korsakoff syndrome?

-Memory impairment part of WK syndrome
-Marked short term memory loss, that are filled in with confabulations

43

What is the rash called with lyme disease?

Erythema migrans

44

What is the antibiotic of choice for lyme disease?

Doxycycline

45

What are the s/sx Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease? Onset?

-Middle or older age
-Serious psychiatric disturbances
-Tremors
-Obvious abnormal EEG

46

What are the three major s/sx of HIV encephalopathy?

-Cognitive impairment
-Anxiety, depression
-Mania

47

What is the gene that is defective in Wilson's disease?

ATP7B

48

What are the features of delirium?

-Disturbed attention/awareness
-Fluctuating course

49

True or false: visual or tactile hallucinations are common with delirium

True

50

What are the two extremes of delirium?

Hyper or hypo arousability

51

What are the four major risk factors for delirium? Which gender?

-Advanced age
-Nursing home placement
-Pre-existing brain damage
-Male

52

What type of infection commonly causes delirium in the elderly?

UTIs

53

Is it possible to have dementia and delirium at the same time?

Yes--very common

54

How do you differentiate dementia and delirium?

Have to know baseline

55

What is the top priority with treating delirium?

Identify cause and correct it

56

If there is a risk of sz with delirium, what drug is indicated? What is agitated?

Sz = Benzo
Agitated = Haldol

57

What is the prognosis for delirium?

Usually clears within 1-2 weeks, but one year mortality = 50%

58

What is mild cognitive impairment?

an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia

59

What is the prognosis for mild cognitive impairment?

Many, but not all, will progress to major NC disorder

60

How do you work up dementia?

-h and p with collateral sources
-CBC
-B12
-Thyroid
-CMP

61

What is the role of ApoE4 in screening for AD?

Not sensitive or specific enough

62

When is head imaging indicated for the workup of dementia? (2)

-Focal neurological signs
-Falls (anticoags)

63

Who determines decision making capacity?

Physician

64

What are the FDA approved treatment for Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)?

None-- all are off label

65

What should be the first-line treatment for dementia?

CBT

66

What are the seven major behavioral clusters of dementia? Which do not usually respond to medication?

-Explosive
-Really bad Psychotic
-Manic
-Depressed
-Anxious
-**Confused**
-**Oppositional**

"COMRADE"

67

What is the role of antidepressants in the treatment for dementia?

-Depression/anxiety
-Sexually inappropriate

68

When are benzo indicated for dementia?

PRN anxiety or insomnia, but o/w should be avoided

69

There is a higher mortality rate in dementia patients, when they're taking what drugs?

Antipsychotics

70

What are the atypical antipsychotics? Which two are specifically indicated for elderly patients with dementia?

-Risperidone**
-Olanzapine**
-Quetiapine
-Aripiprazole
-Ziprasidone

71

When are antipsychotics indicated for dementia patients?

Psychotic, manic

72

What are the side effects of risperidone?

Less anticholinergic

73

What are the side effects of olanzapine?

Weight gain

74

What are the side effects of quetiapine?

Sedating, but less EPS

75

What are the side effects of ziprasidone?

QT prolongation

76

What is the benefit of aripiprazole compared to other antipsychotics?

Less metabolic risk

77

What is the anticonvulsant indicated for dementia patients? When is it indicated?

-Carbamazepine
-Manic or explosive episodes

78

What is the classic side effect of trazodone?

Trazo-bone

79

Which drugs in particular are scrutinized by state regulators in nursing homes?

-Sedative-hypnotics
-Antipsychotics

80

What are the two major pharmacological treatments for cognitive s/sx of dementia?

-Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors
-Memantine

81

What is the MOA and use for memantine?

-AD
-NMDA receptor blocker

82

What are the three major acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used for dementia?

-Donepezil
-Rivastigmine
-Galantamine

83

What is the MOA of donepezil?

Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor

84

What is the MOA of Rivastigmine?

Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor

85

What is the MOA of Galantamine?

Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor

86

Is alcohol a risk factor for the development of dementia?

Protective if not abused
Destructive if abused or used excessively

87

What is the TCA of choice for MDD with psychotic features? Why?

-Amoxapine
-Metabolite is a dopamine receptor blocker