Flashcards in CLASP Deck (116)
what is vertebraplasty?
used in palliative care
cement added to spine to hold it together again
E.G after high steroid dose has destroyed bone
when is O2 used in breathlessness?
only if they are hypoxic as well
what produces SiADH?
small cell lung cancer
what produces ACTH?
small cell (neuroendocrine)
what is lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome?
muscles problems, antibody related in pre-synaptic membrane, not hormone-related
what indicates melanoma on histology?
what can be used to determine if mets are from lung, liver, stomach etc?
If premalignant part of tumour is present
what is a carcinoid tumour?
neuroendocrine derived tumour usually in appendix/small bowel
yellow and assoc with serotonin
how is a carcinoid tumour diagnosed?
Urine 5-HIAA and plasma
what is required for carcinoid syndrome?
B cell MALT
assoc w/ coeliac disease
what cancer is kartageners syndrome associated with?
squamous cell carcinoma
cilia defect so affects lungs and fallopian tubes
what does BCL2 do?
evasion of apoptosis
what does P53 do?
what tumour stage do you look for mets?
not T1, only T2-4
when is radio/chemotherapy used?
radio = local sit of malignancy
chemo = systemic
what are the endpoints for cancer treatments?
progression free survival
disease free survival
NOT TOXICITY FREE
what is atelectasis?
what is seen with asbestos exposure?
adenocarcinoma (esp. w/ smoking)
what is the worst indication with mesothelioma?
blue fibres (eg. amphipole)
how does HPV cause cancer?
E6 targets P53 production
E7 targets pRB
(does not directly cause mutations however)
can HIV cause cancer?
immunosuppressed making susceptible to cancer causing viruses
what is plummer vinson?
increased risk of dysphagia, webs and then oesophageal cancer (squamous cell)
what does lynch syndrome cause?
endometrial and colon cancer
who gets screened for lynch syndrome?
everyone with MSI (microsatellite instability = spelling mistakes)
example of hyperplasia?
lining of uterus
example of hypertrophy?
muscle (skeletal and cardiac)
example of atrophy?
leg in plaster cast
example of metaplasia?
change from ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium in bronchi to squamous in response to smoking