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Flashcards in CLASP Deck (116)
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1

what is vertebraplasty?

used in palliative care
cement added to spine to hold it together again
E.G after high steroid dose has destroyed bone

2

when is O2 used in breathlessness?

only if they are hypoxic as well

3

what produces SiADH?

small cell lung cancer

4

what produces ACTH?

small cell (neuroendocrine)

5

what is lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome?

muscles problems, antibody related in pre-synaptic membrane, not hormone-related

6

what indicates melanoma on histology?

brown pigments

7

what can be used to determine if mets are from lung, liver, stomach etc?

immunohistochemistry
If premalignant part of tumour is present

8

what is a carcinoid tumour?

neuroendocrine derived tumour usually in appendix/small bowel
yellow and assoc with serotonin

9

how is a carcinoid tumour diagnosed?

Urine 5-HIAA and plasma

10

what is required for carcinoid syndrome?

liver mets
chromogranin A

11

Lymphoma?

B cell MALT
assoc w/ coeliac disease

12

what cancer is kartageners syndrome associated with?

squamous cell carcinoma
cilia defect so affects lungs and fallopian tubes

13

what does BCL2 do?

evasion of apoptosis

14

what does P53 do?

spell checker

15

what tumour stage do you look for mets?

not T1, only T2-4

16

when is radio/chemotherapy used?

radio = local sit of malignancy
chemo = systemic

17

what are the endpoints for cancer treatments?

overall survival
progression free survival
disease free survival
local control
NOT TOXICITY FREE

18

what is atelectasis?

lung collapse

19

what is seen with asbestos exposure?

pleural effusion
rounded atelectasis
pleural plaques
asbestosis
adenocarcinoma (esp. w/ smoking)
mesothelioma

20

what is the worst indication with mesothelioma?

blue fibres (eg. amphipole)

21

how does HPV cause cancer?

E6 targets P53 production
E7 targets pRB
(does not directly cause mutations however)

22

can HIV cause cancer?

not directly
immunosuppressed making susceptible to cancer causing viruses

23

what is plummer vinson?

increased risk of dysphagia, webs and then oesophageal cancer (squamous cell)

24

what does lynch syndrome cause?

endometrial and colon cancer

25

who gets screened for lynch syndrome?

everyone with MSI (microsatellite instability = spelling mistakes)

26

example of hyperplasia?

lining of uterus
liver regeneration
testes

27

example of hypertrophy?

muscle (skeletal and cardiac)

28

example of atrophy?

leg in plaster cast

29

example of metaplasia?

barrets
change from ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium in bronchi to squamous in response to smoking

30

squamous carcinoma in lung can only occur with smoking, true or false?

true
usually isn't any squamous epithelium unless metaplastic change