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Flashcards in Year 2 Passmed Mix Deck (71)
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1

what type of drug is octreotide and what is it used to treat?

somatostatin analogue
used to treat acromegaly
- somatostatin directly inhibits growth hormone release

2

what pathology is seen in the thyroid gland in hashimotos thyroiditis (hypothyroidism)?

lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland and formation of germinal centres

3

what is de quervains thyroiditis?

subacute thyroiditis
patient may initially have hyperthyroidism then progress to hypothyroid

4

what pathology occurs in de quervains thyroiditis?

disruption of thyroid follicles with patchy inflammatory infiltrate and some follicles containing multinucleated giant cells

5

hashimotos thyroiditis is associated with which genotype?

HLA DR3 and HLA DR4

6

what biochemistry would be seen in addisons disease?

low sodium
high potassium

7

what is a boxer's fracture?

minimally displaced fracture of the 5th metacarpal

8

describe type 1 skeletal muscle

slow conduction
red in colour (due to presence of myoglobin)
main function = prolonged contraction
fuel = triglycerides
dense with mitochondria

9

describe type 2 mitochondria

fast conduction
white (due to absence of myoglobin)
main function = short, sudden movement
fuel = ATP
Thinly dispersed mitochondria

10

from which structure does the long head of the triceps arise?

infraglenoid tubercle

11

what nerve innervates the triceps?

radial nerve

12

what nerves innervate the knee?

femoral
common fibular and tibial branches off the sciatic
obturator (allows for referred pain from the hip)

13

what arteries supply the knee?

genicular branches of femoral artery
anterior tibial artery
popliteal artery

14

pneumonic for the carpal bones?

Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cannot Handle
Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrum
Pisiform
Trapezium
Trapezioid
Capitate
Hamate

15

injury to what nerve can cause a positive trendelenberg gait?

superior gluteal nerve
innervates gluteus medius which is responsible for thigh abduction

16

injury to what nerve causes foot drop?

common fibular

17

what is denosumab and how is it given?

RANKL antagonist used to treat osteoporosis (not first line)
given as either a 6 monthly or 4 weekly subcutaneous injection

18

give 4 common side effects of denosumab

osteonecrosis of the jaw
diarrhoea
hypocalaemia
dyspnoea

19

give 4 common features of ehlers danlos syndrome

joint hypermobility
flexible skin
easy bruising
heart valve problems

20

patients with ehlers danlos syndrome are prone to what?

subarachnoid haemorrhage (due to rupture of a berry aneurysm in cerebral circulation)

21

rheumatoid arthritis can cause what respiratory disease?

pulmonary fibrosis

22

how may a vitreous haemorrhage present?

arc of white light and cobwebs in vision with movement of the eye
reduced visual acuity
vie of the fundus blocked by grey and red matter on fundoscopy

23

what scan is performed in suspected vitreous haemorrhage and why?

US
all vitreous haemorrhage is retinal detachment until proven otherwise
- US can exclude retinal detachment

24

name a risk factor which causes elevated serum urate and can lead to gout?

chronic haemolytic anaemia

25

where do salivary stones usually occur and how does this present?

submandibular gland
intermittent painful swelling below the jaw
worse on eating

26

how are salivary stones diagnosed?

sialogram

27

how does optic neuritis present?

painful loss of vision over few hours
reduction in acuity
loss of colour vision
Pain worse on movement
RAPD

28

MS can cause optic neuritis, how can this be confirmed?

normal optic discs on fundoscopy
white matter lesions/plaques on MRI
oligoclonal bands on lumbar puncture and CSF

29

giant cell arteritis is associated with what eye condition and how does this present?

anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION)
RAPD and reduction in visual acuity

30

MS causes what other disease as well as optic neuritis?

internuclear opthalmoplegia