Flashcards in Year 2 Passmed Mix Deck (71)
what type of drug is octreotide and what is it used to treat?
used to treat acromegaly
- somatostatin directly inhibits growth hormone release
what pathology is seen in the thyroid gland in hashimotos thyroiditis (hypothyroidism)?
lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland and formation of germinal centres
what is de quervains thyroiditis?
patient may initially have hyperthyroidism then progress to hypothyroid
what pathology occurs in de quervains thyroiditis?
disruption of thyroid follicles with patchy inflammatory infiltrate and some follicles containing multinucleated giant cells
hashimotos thyroiditis is associated with which genotype?
HLA DR3 and HLA DR4
what biochemistry would be seen in addisons disease?
what is a boxer's fracture?
minimally displaced fracture of the 5th metacarpal
describe type 1 skeletal muscle
red in colour (due to presence of myoglobin)
main function = prolonged contraction
fuel = triglycerides
dense with mitochondria
describe type 2 mitochondria
white (due to absence of myoglobin)
main function = short, sudden movement
fuel = ATP
Thinly dispersed mitochondria
from which structure does the long head of the triceps arise?
what nerve innervates the triceps?
what nerves innervate the knee?
common fibular and tibial branches off the sciatic
obturator (allows for referred pain from the hip)
what arteries supply the knee?
genicular branches of femoral artery
anterior tibial artery
pneumonic for the carpal bones?
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cannot Handle
injury to what nerve can cause a positive trendelenberg gait?
superior gluteal nerve
innervates gluteus medius which is responsible for thigh abduction
injury to what nerve causes foot drop?
what is denosumab and how is it given?
RANKL antagonist used to treat osteoporosis (not first line)
given as either a 6 monthly or 4 weekly subcutaneous injection
give 4 common side effects of denosumab
osteonecrosis of the jaw
give 4 common features of ehlers danlos syndrome
heart valve problems
patients with ehlers danlos syndrome are prone to what?
subarachnoid haemorrhage (due to rupture of a berry aneurysm in cerebral circulation)
rheumatoid arthritis can cause what respiratory disease?
how may a vitreous haemorrhage present?
arc of white light and cobwebs in vision with movement of the eye
reduced visual acuity
vie of the fundus blocked by grey and red matter on fundoscopy
what scan is performed in suspected vitreous haemorrhage and why?
all vitreous haemorrhage is retinal detachment until proven otherwise
- US can exclude retinal detachment
name a risk factor which causes elevated serum urate and can lead to gout?
chronic haemolytic anaemia
where do salivary stones usually occur and how does this present?
intermittent painful swelling below the jaw
worse on eating
how are salivary stones diagnosed?
how does optic neuritis present?
painful loss of vision over few hours
reduction in acuity
loss of colour vision
Pain worse on movement
MS can cause optic neuritis, how can this be confirmed?
normal optic discs on fundoscopy
white matter lesions/plaques on MRI
oligoclonal bands on lumbar puncture and CSF
giant cell arteritis is associated with what eye condition and how does this present?
anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION)
RAPD and reduction in visual acuity