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Flashcards in Principles Anatomy Deck (30)
1

paralysis vs spaticity?

paralysis = motor nerve not working = reduced tone
spasticity = motor nerve working but descending controls not working = increased tone

2

what is the most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity?

rectouterine pouch/pouch of douglas
abnormal fluid collects here

3

layers of the uterus wall?

perimetrium
myometrium
endometrium (shed in menstration)

4

what does the pituitary gland regulate in males and females?

females = hormone production and ova development
male = hormone and sperm development

5

external opening of penis?

external urethral orifice

6

passage of sperm?

produced in seminiferous tubules
travel to rete testes then epididymis which becomes vas deferens

7

components of spermatic cord?

vas deferens
testicular artery
pampiniform plexus of veins

8

what level does spinal cord end?

L1/L2

9

what is grey and white matter in the brain?

grey matter = cell bodies
white = myelinated axons

10

name the cranial nerves in order

olfactory
optic
oculomotor
trochlear
trigeminal
acudant
facial
vestibulocochlear
glossopharyngeal
vagus
spinal accessory
hypoglossal

11

T4 dermatome?

male nipple

12

cervical plexus?

C1-C4 anterior rami
supplies posterior scalp, neck and diaphragm

13

brachial plexus?

C5-T1 anterior rami
supplies upper limb

14

lumbar plexus?

L1-L4 lumbar plexus
lower limb

15

sacral plexus?

L5-S4
lower limb, gluteal region and perineum

16

where do sympathetic nerves leave the spinal cord?

T1-L2 in anterior rootlets

17

describe the somatic pathway for touch

3 neurone chain

18

which part of the brain receives APs from the right side of the body wall?

left parietal lobe
primary somatosensory area

19

what is the difference between the upper and lower motor neurones?

upper = opposite side from side of movement
lower = same side as movement

20

what is the function of the left frontal lobe?

left primary somatomotor area
planned movements originate here
contractions of right sided skeletal muscle

21

what is the spinal reflex?

misses out the pathway to the brain

22

which spinal nerves have lateral horns?

T1-L2

23

which gland is referred to as the master gland?

pituitary gland
in pituitary fossa of sphenoid bone

24

what does the anterior pituitary do?

secretes:
prolactin
growth hormone
thyroid stimulating hormone
ACTH
LH
FSH

25

what controls secretion from anterior pituitary?

hypothalamic neurones secrete hormones

26

what does the posterior pituitary do?

manufactures oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH)
receives hormones transported within axoplasm via axoplasmic transport (hypophyseal portal veins)

27

what is the infundibulum?

connects hypothalamus to pituitary

28

what are the 2 venous capillary beds of the portal system?

hepatic portal system
hypophyseal portal system

29

what does the thyroid gland use iodine to manufacture?

troiidothyronine (T3)
thyroxine (T4)

30

what is GOITRE

enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine