Flashcards in Principles Anatomy Deck (30)
paralysis vs spaticity?
paralysis = motor nerve not working = reduced tone
spasticity = motor nerve working but descending controls not working = increased tone
what is the most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity?
rectouterine pouch/pouch of douglas
abnormal fluid collects here
layers of the uterus wall?
endometrium (shed in menstration)
what does the pituitary gland regulate in males and females?
females = hormone production and ova development
male = hormone and sperm development
external opening of penis?
external urethral orifice
passage of sperm?
produced in seminiferous tubules
travel to rete testes then epididymis which becomes vas deferens
components of spermatic cord?
pampiniform plexus of veins
what level does spinal cord end?
what is grey and white matter in the brain?
grey matter = cell bodies
white = myelinated axons
name the cranial nerves in order
C1-C4 anterior rami
supplies posterior scalp, neck and diaphragm
C5-T1 anterior rami
supplies upper limb
L1-L4 lumbar plexus
lower limb, gluteal region and perineum
where do sympathetic nerves leave the spinal cord?
T1-L2 in anterior rootlets
describe the somatic pathway for touch
3 neurone chain
which part of the brain receives APs from the right side of the body wall?
left parietal lobe
primary somatosensory area
what is the difference between the upper and lower motor neurones?
upper = opposite side from side of movement
lower = same side as movement
what is the function of the left frontal lobe?
left primary somatomotor area
planned movements originate here
contractions of right sided skeletal muscle
what is the spinal reflex?
misses out the pathway to the brain
which spinal nerves have lateral horns?
which gland is referred to as the master gland?
in pituitary fossa of sphenoid bone
what does the anterior pituitary do?
thyroid stimulating hormone
what controls secretion from anterior pituitary?
hypothalamic neurones secrete hormones
what does the posterior pituitary do?
manufactures oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH)
receives hormones transported within axoplasm via axoplasmic transport (hypophyseal portal veins)
what is the infundibulum?
connects hypothalamus to pituitary
what are the 2 venous capillary beds of the portal system?
hepatic portal system
hypophyseal portal system
what does the thyroid gland use iodine to manufacture?