Michelle Summary Flashcards Preview

Holy Grail Docs > Michelle Summary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Michelle Summary Deck (64)
1

Gs?

B1
B2
H2
D1
(heart and lungs)

2

Gi?

M2 (in SAN)
A2 (in heart)

3

Gq?

A1
M1
M3

4

Parasympathetic = short preganglionic fibres and sympathetic = long, true or false?

false, other way around
go into chains then go to eyes, heart, lungs etc

5

what is heamethonium?

non-competitive antagonist that sits in the nicotinic ganglionic channel and blocks it

6

conceptus?

fetrtilization > week 3

7

embryo?

week 4 > 8

8

foetus?

week 9 > birth

9

what are the 6 stages of development?

gametogenesis
fertilization
cleavage
gastrulation
morphogenesis
organogenesis

10

gametogenesis?

forms oocyte or spermatozoa

11

fertilization?

fusion to form zygote in ampulla

12

cleavage?

rapid cell division

13

gastrulation?

germ layers form
- exoderm = outer - becomes skin and NS
- mesoderm = middle - becomes organs
- endoderm - becomes all tubes (gut and lungs etc)

14

morphogenesis?

cluster forms a 3D shape

15

organogenesis?

formation of organs and structures

16

zona pellucida?

protective layer around oocyte

17

primary bronchial buds?

bifurcation of rachea produces left and right bronchi

18

2ndary bronchial buds?

further bifurcation into 3 right and 2 left bronchi

19

what happens to foramen ovale in adults?

closes due to increased pressure and becomes the fossa ovalis

20

what gives rise to the heart?

visceral mesoderm
develops during week 4

21

heart tube from cranial > caudal?

truncus arteriosus (R aorta and pulm trunk)
bulbus cordus (R ventricle)
ventricle (left ventricle)
atrium (both atria)
sinus venosus (R. atria and coronary sinus)

22

what is septation?

division from folds into 4 heart chambers

23

what is churg strauss?

vasculitis with eosinophilic granulomatosis
assoc. with allergic airway hypersensitivity (asthma)
pANCA

24

wegner's granulomatosis?

vasculitis of nose, lungs, kidneys and throat
causes sinusitis, renal failure etc
assoc. with epistaxis or haemoptysis
cANCA

25

what is kussmaul breathing?

deep laboured breathing in attempt to blow off CO2 to reduce metabolic acidosis

26

normal waist circumference?

<37 inches

27

components of med. diet?

starchy foods
fish
less meat
olive oil
swap dairy for soya

28

pressure in atria and ventricles during passive filling?

0

29

when are korotkoff sounds heard?

when cuff pressure between syst and dias

30

right axis deviation?

III is most +ve
I and II are -ve

31

left axis deviation?

I is most positive
II and III are -ve

32

prolonged PR interval?

>0.2 secs
sign of heart block

33

U waves?

sign of bradycardia, hypokalaemia or digoxin

34

how is HR measured?

300/number of large squares between R waves

35

how do you measure irregular HR?

number of QRS's in 30 large squares X10

36

how is MAP calculated?

1/3rd of (systolic + (2 X diastolic))
diastolic + 1/3rd pulse pressure
CO X SVR

37

what makes up total body fluid?

60% water
2/3 ICF, 1/3 ECF

38

baroreceptor firing in decreased BP?

decreased firing via aortic (vagus) and carotid (CN IX)

39

effect of decreased vagal stimulation on medulla?

increased HR > increased CO > increased BP

40

effect of increased sympathetic stimulation on medulla?

increased SV > increased CO > increased BP

41

effect of increased sympathetic vaso/veno-constrictor tone on medulla?

increased SV > increased BP

42

where is ADH produced and stored?

produced in hypothalamus
stored in posterior pituitary

43

what stimulates ADH release?

RAAS
increased ECF osmolality (monitored by osmoreceptors in brain)

44

what does ADH do?

acts on tubules to retain H2O which concentrates urine
vasoconstricts, esp in hypovolaemic shock

45

what counter-regulates the RAAS system and decreased BP?

Natriuretic peptides (NPs)

46

what are the 2 types of NP and where are they released from?

ANP = atrial myocytes
BNP = ventricular myocytes, brain etc (increases in HF)

47

what do NPs do?

released in response to cardiac distension
1. increase Na and H2O excretion
2. decrease renin release
3. vasodilate

48

there is no parasympathetic innervation in blood vessels smooth muscle, true or false?

true (apart from genitalia)

49

name 8 vasodilators

NO
histamine
bradykinin
adrenaline
dobutamine
ANP
BNP
PGI2

50

name 5 vasoconstrictors

endothelin
leukotrienes (asthma, mast cells)
thromboxane A2
serotonin
adrenaline on alpha (skin, gut, kidneys)

51

investigations for intermittent claudication?

non invasive = ABPI (systolic)
- should be 0.4-0.85
Invasive = MRA, CT angio/catheter

52

critical limb ischaemia?

pain at rest, worse lying flat, better moving around

53

6 Ps of acute limb ischaemia?

pain
pallor
pulseless
perishingly cold
paraesthesia
paralysis

54

salvageable limb ischaemia?

<12 hrs
blanching mottled

55

non-salvageable limb ischaemia?

red, tender compartment of calf
>12 hrs

56

management of acute limb ischaemia?

ABC
bloods
ECG
CXR
anticoagulants
arterial imaging
if in doubt - urgent CT/catheter angio

57

3 components of diabetic foot sepsis?

diabetic neuropathy
peripheral vascular disease
infection

58

pathogenesis of aneurysm?

defect of elastin/collagen > dilation/increased aortic wall stress

59

AAA diagnosis?

1st line = US
CT if looking to tell whether its ruptured

60

diseases assoc with mitral regurg?

rheumatic disease
MI/papillary rupture
LVH
cardiomyopathy
Marfans

61

diseases assoc with mitral stenosis?

rheumatic fever
SLE
calcification
amyloidosis
prosthetic valve

62

diseases assoc with aortic regurgitation?

cusp rupture
marfans
rheumatoid arthritis
SLE
aortic dissection
infection > perforation
ankylosing spondylitis
syphilis

63

diseases assoc with aortic stenosis?

congenital
age-related calcification
rheumatic disease

64

tricuspid regurgitation?

pan systolic
high pitched