Flashcards in Resp Bible Deck (78)
where does the larynx become the trachea / the pharynx becomes the oesophagus?
at which level does the trachea bifurcate?
what is the lingual?
flap of tissue on the inferior medial edge of the left lung
which nerve supplies the diaphragm?
(C3, 4, 5)
what are the signs or horner's syndrome?
ptosis (drooping eyelid)
Miosis (contriction of pupil)
Anhydrosis (failure of sweat glands)
which lung cancer cancer do non-smokers get?
which antigen is present in squamous cell carcinoma?
what is the rima glottidis?
narrowest part of the larynx
where foreign bodies tend to block
obstructive lung disease + raised eosinophils?
obstructive lung disease + raised neutrophils?
Asian man with fever, weight loss and night sweats?
what test is done for legionella pneumonia?
urine antigen test
ABCDE of pulmonary oedema?
Alveolar bat's wings
kerly B lines
Dilated prominent upper lobe vessels
ziehl nelson stain positive for acid fast bacilli?
4 Cs of fibrosis?
Crackles (fine inspiratory)
D sign on X ray?
type 1 resp failure?
type 2 resp failure?
hypoxia and hypercapnia
factors of exudate?
protein > 30
LDH > 200
factors of transudate?
protein < 30
LDH < 200
what are the signs of metabolic acidosis/diabetic ketoacidosis?
Type 1 diabetic not taking insulin and vomiting
deep laboured breathing
thumbprint on head X ray?
what is the most common cause of epiglottitis?
how is epiglottitis treated?
don't touch with tongue depressor
Increased ACE and calcium?
where is respiratory rhythm established?
which type of firing in the medulla initiates inspiration and expiration??
dorsal = inspiratory
ventral = expiratory
how is breathing modified in the pons?
apneustic centre = prolongs inspiration (can cause apneustic breathing)
Pneumotaxic centre = inhibits inspiration
what is Henry's law?
the volume of a gas is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in equilibrium with a liquid
what type of epithelium is respiratory epithelium?
pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
what is coryza?
what epithelium lines each part of the respiratory tract?
respiratory epithelium = from nasal cavity to bronchi
Bronchioles = simple columnar
Alveoli - simple squamous
what is associated with chlamydiophila psittachi?
mucoid sputum (white or grey)
what is associated with coxiella burnetti?
what is associated with legionella?
water on foreign holiday
urine antigen testing
what is associated with mycoplasma pneumonia?
what is associated with klebsiella pneumonia?
rec currant jelly sputum
what is associated with pneumocystis carinni pneumonia?
what is associated with strep pneumonia?
what are the common causes of pneumonia in CF patients?
what is associated with H. influenza?
what is associated with bordetella pertussis?
what is associated with pseudomonas aeruginosa?
Gram -ve bacillus
what are the signs of whooping cough?
high pitched gasp on inspiration following fit of coughing
similar symptoms to cold
what is bronchopneumonia?
pneumonia arising from the bronchi/bronchioles
stony dull percussion?
Kerly B lines on CXR?
Tram line shadowing?
ground glass appearance?
pleural mass with lobulated margin?
signs of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency extrinsic allergic alveolitis?
early onset emphysema plus liver disease
fever, cough, SOB hours after exposure to antigen (often farmer after hay exposure)
signs of CF?
recurrent chest infections
failure to thrive
possible steatorrhoea (pancreatic insufficiency)
Positive sweat test (NaCl >60)
signs of fibrosing alveolitis?
progressive dyspnoea and cyanosis
fine end-inspiratory crackles
CXR = ground glass > honeycombing
signs of a lung abscess?
copious foul smelling sputum
persistent worsening pneumonia
rifampicin side effects?
isoniazid side effects?
Pyrazinamide side effects?
ethambutamol side effects?
colour blindness > blindness
which cancer gives off mucin?
which cancer gives off ectopic hormone?
PTH = squamous
ACTH = small cell
which investigation is used to look for bone metastases?
radionuclide bone scan
name a contra-indication for V/Q scan
what is the treatment for a large PE?
what is the treatment for a small PE?
what are the common characteristics of someone with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency?
possible liver damage
lung disease (COPD)
what is caplan's syndrome?
combination of rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiosis
manifests in intrapulmonary nodules which are well defined on CXR
what is samter's triad?
(aspirin induced asthma)
what does the location of the emphysema tell you about the cause?
centriacinar = smoking
panacinar = A1AT deficiency
pink puffer = emphysema
blue bloater = bronchitis
what is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis?
where is the middle lobe auscultated?
between right ribs 4 and 6
where are the oblique and horizontal fissures?
oblique = rib 6
horizontal = rib 4
what lies in the anterior intercostal spaces?
internal thoracic artery/vein