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Flashcards in Resp Bible Deck (78)
1

where does the larynx become the trachea / the pharynx becomes the oesophagus?

C6

2

at which level does the trachea bifurcate?

T5-T7
(carina)

3

what is the lingual?

flap of tissue on the inferior medial edge of the left lung

4

which nerve supplies the diaphragm?

phrenic nerve
(C3, 4, 5)

5

what are the signs or horner's syndrome?

ptosis (drooping eyelid)
Miosis (contriction of pupil)
Anhydrosis (failure of sweat glands)

6

which lung cancer cancer do non-smokers get?

adenocarcinoma

7

which antigen is present in squamous cell carcinoma?

P63

8

what is the rima glottidis?

narrowest part of the larynx
where foreign bodies tend to block

9

obstructive lung disease + raised eosinophils?

asthma

10

obstructive lung disease + raised neutrophils?

COPD

11

Asian man with fever, weight loss and night sweats?

TB

12

what test is done for legionella pneumonia?

urine antigen test

13

ABCDE of pulmonary oedema?

Alveolar bat's wings
kerly B lines
Cardiomegaly
Dilated prominent upper lobe vessels
pleural Effusion

14

ziehl nelson stain positive for acid fast bacilli?

TB

15

4 Cs of fibrosis?

Clubbing
Cough
Cyanosis
Crackles (fine inspiratory)

16

D sign on X ray?

empyema

17

type 1 resp failure?

hypoxia

18

type 2 resp failure?

hypoxia and hypercapnia

19

factors of exudate?

protein > 30
LDH > 200

20

factors of transudate?

protein < 30
LDH < 200

21

what are the signs of metabolic acidosis/diabetic ketoacidosis?

Type 1 diabetic not taking insulin and vomiting
dehydrated
deep laboured breathing

22

thumbprint on head X ray?

epiglottitis

23

what is the most common cause of epiglottitis?

H. influenza

24

how is epiglottitis treated?

ceftriaxone
don't touch with tongue depressor

25

Increased ACE and calcium?

sarcoidosis

26

where is respiratory rhythm established?

medulla

27

which type of firing in the medulla initiates inspiration and expiration??

DIVE
dorsal = inspiratory
ventral = expiratory

28

how is breathing modified in the pons?

apneustic centre = prolongs inspiration (can cause apneustic breathing)
Pneumotaxic centre = inhibits inspiration

29

what is Henry's law?

the volume of a gas is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in equilibrium with a liquid

30

what type of epithelium is respiratory epithelium?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

31

what is coryza?

common cold

32

what epithelium lines each part of the respiratory tract?

respiratory epithelium = from nasal cavity to bronchi
Bronchioles = simple columnar
Alveoli - simple squamous

33

what is associated with chlamydiophila psittachi?

bird keeping
headache
mucoid sputum (white or grey)

34

what is associated with coxiella burnetti?

sheep farmer
Q fever

35

what is associated with legionella?

water on foreign holiday
GI upset
urine antigen testing

36

what is associated with mycoplasma pneumonia?

dry cough
young people
normal CXR

37

what is associated with klebsiella pneumonia?

rec currant jelly sputum
COPD/alcoholics/elderly

38

what is associated with pneumocystis carinni pneumonia?

HIV
AIDS
immunosuppressed

39

what is associated with strep pneumonia?

rusty sputum

40

what are the common causes of pneumonia in CF patients?

staph aureus
pseudomonas aeruginosa

41

what is associated with H. influenza?

COPD
alcoholics
elderly

42

what is associated with bordetella pertussis?

whooping cough
bronchopneumonia

43

what is associated with pseudomonas aeruginosa?

CF
UTI
GI
Burns
Scars
Gram -ve bacillus

44

what are the signs of whooping cough?

high pitched gasp on inspiration following fit of coughing
similar symptoms to cold

45

what is bronchopneumonia?

pneumonia arising from the bronchi/bronchioles

46

stony dull percussion?

pleural effusion

47

Kerly B lines on CXR?

heart failure

48

Tram line shadowing?

bronchiectasis

49

Miliary shadowing?

Miliary TB

50

Wedge-shaped infarct?

PE

51

ground glass appearance?

fibrosis

52

honeycomb appearance?

fibrosis (late)

53

pleural mass with lobulated margin?

mesothelioma

54

signs of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency extrinsic allergic alveolitis?

early onset emphysema plus liver disease
fever, cough, SOB hours after exposure to antigen (often farmer after hay exposure)

55

signs of CF?

recurrent chest infections
failure to thrive
possible steatorrhoea (pancreatic insufficiency)
Positive sweat test (NaCl >60)

56

signs of fibrosing alveolitis?

progressive dyspnoea and cyanosis
clubbing
fine end-inspiratory crackles
CXR = ground glass > honeycombing

57

signs of a lung abscess?

swinging fever
copious foul smelling sputum
persistent worsening pneumonia

58

cavitating lung(s)?

staph/klebsiella infection

59

rifampicin side effects?

hepatitis
orange secretions
deranged LFTs

60

isoniazid side effects?

hepatitis
peripheral neuropathy

61

Pyrazinamide side effects?

hepatitis
gout

62

ethambutamol side effects?

pain
colour blindness > blindness

63

which cancer gives off mucin?

adenocarcinoma

64

which cancer gives off ectopic hormone?

PTH = squamous
ACTH = small cell

65

which investigation is used to look for bone metastases?

radionuclide bone scan

66

name a contra-indication for V/Q scan

pregnancy

67

what is the treatment for a large PE?

thrombolysis

68

what is the treatment for a small PE?

LMWH

69

what are the common characteristics of someone with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency?

young
non-smoker
possible liver damage
lung disease (COPD)

70

what is caplan's syndrome?

combination of rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiosis
manifests in intrapulmonary nodules which are well defined on CXR

71

what is samter's triad?

asthma
aspirin sensitivity
nasal polyps
(aspirin induced asthma)

72

what does the location of the emphysema tell you about the cause?

centriacinar = smoking
panacinar = A1AT deficiency

73

pink puffer?
blue bloater?

pink puffer = emphysema
blue bloater = bronchitis

74

what is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis?

RSV

75

where is the middle lobe auscultated?

between right ribs 4 and 6

76

where are the oblique and horizontal fissures?

oblique = rib 6
horizontal = rib 4

77

what lies in the anterior intercostal spaces?

internal thoracic artery/vein

78

what lies in the posterior intercostal space?

thoracic aorta/azygous vein