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Flashcards in GI Bible Deck (66)
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1

which nerve supplies the rectum?

S4
inferior rectal nerve

2

how is H. Pylori diagnosed/treated?

diagnosed via Urea breath test
Treated with triple therapy:
- PPI + amoxy (metronidazole if allergic) + clarythromicin

3

what differentiates a gastric vs duodenal ulcer?

duodenal relieved by milk

4

what is the sign of achalasia and how is it treated?

birds beak appearance on barium swallow
hellers cardiomyotomy or balloon dilatation

5

what is the acute presentation of oesophageal varices?

massive bleeding - haematomesis and malaena
history of liver disease or portal hypertension

6

how is an oesophageal variceal bleed treated?

recuscitation (correct clotting abnormalities)
IV terlipressin/vasopressin
Banding
Sengstaken Blakermore Tube
TIPSS?

7

How are oesophageal varices prevented?

TIPSS
Beta blockers
Endoscopy and banding

8

what are some trademarks of crohns?

cobblestone mucosa
recurrent oral stomatitis
deep fissuring ulceration of mucosa

9

what is the treatment for crohns?

Mesalazine (5-ASA)
immunosuppression - Azathioprine
Steroids - Prednisolone?

10

what is barrets oesophagus?

replacement of normal stratified squamous epithelium by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells
- development of goblet cells = adenocarcinoma risk

11

what is murphy's sign?

Tests for gallbladder inflammation
Examiner hooks fingers under liver and asks patient to exhale, if gallbladder descends into hands causing pain = inflammation

12

what is duke's classification?

staging system for colorectal cancer
A = confined to submucosa
B1 = not crossed bowel wall
B2 = crossed bowel wall
C = not crossed bowel wall + lymph node metastases
D = crossed bowel wall + lymph node metastases

13

how is ascites managed?

spironolactone
paracentesis

14

what are the side effects of spironolactone?

gynaecomastia
hyperkalaemia

15

what can hyperkalaemia cause?

risk of arrhythmais

16

what does thumb printing at the splenic flexure indicate?

ischaemic colitis

17

what is another name for the external urethral orifice?

meatus

18

which foods take the longest to digest?

fatty foods

19

what is the difference between haemorrhoids and rectal prolapse?

haemorrhoids:
- prolapse of rectal venous plexus due to chronic constipation/pregnancy/portal hypertension
Rectal prolapse = the actual rectal tissue comes out

20

What does BUFALO stand for (sepsis management)?

Bloods
Urine output (measure)
Fluids
Antibiotics
Lactate (measure)
Oxygen

21

what is wilsons disease?

autosomal recessive disease of copper metabolism
Low caeruloplasmin
Kayser-fleischer rings

22

what is grey turner's sign?

bruising of flanks
acute pancreatitis

23

what is Cullen's sign?

umbilical bruising
acute pancreatitis

24

what are the symptoms of acute pancreatitis?

cullens sign
grey turner's sign
epigastric pain radiating to the back
vomiting
raised amylase
raised lipase

25

what is virchows node?

left supraclavicular lymph node
enlarged in gastric cancer

26

what do signet ring cells on biopsy indicate?

diffuse stomach cancer (linitis plastica)

27

what does high AFP (alphafeto protein) indicate?

hepatocellular carcinoma

28

what will oesophageal spasm look like on barium swallow?

corkscrew oesophagus

29

abdominal pain and diarrhoea after sour milk or shellfish?

campylobacter

30

what is charcot's triad?

fever, jaundice, abdominal pain
indicates acute cholangitis