Flashcards in GI Bible Deck (66)
which nerve supplies the rectum?
inferior rectal nerve
how is H. Pylori diagnosed/treated?
diagnosed via Urea breath test
Treated with triple therapy:
- PPI + amoxy (metronidazole if allergic) + clarythromicin
what differentiates a gastric vs duodenal ulcer?
duodenal relieved by milk
what is the sign of achalasia and how is it treated?
birds beak appearance on barium swallow
hellers cardiomyotomy or balloon dilatation
what is the acute presentation of oesophageal varices?
massive bleeding - haematomesis and malaena
history of liver disease or portal hypertension
how is an oesophageal variceal bleed treated?
recuscitation (correct clotting abnormalities)
Sengstaken Blakermore Tube
How are oesophageal varices prevented?
Endoscopy and banding
what are some trademarks of crohns?
recurrent oral stomatitis
deep fissuring ulceration of mucosa
what is the treatment for crohns?
immunosuppression - Azathioprine
Steroids - Prednisolone?
what is barrets oesophagus?
replacement of normal stratified squamous epithelium by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells
- development of goblet cells = adenocarcinoma risk
what is murphy's sign?
Tests for gallbladder inflammation
Examiner hooks fingers under liver and asks patient to exhale, if gallbladder descends into hands causing pain = inflammation
what is duke's classification?
staging system for colorectal cancer
A = confined to submucosa
B1 = not crossed bowel wall
B2 = crossed bowel wall
C = not crossed bowel wall + lymph node metastases
D = crossed bowel wall + lymph node metastases
how is ascites managed?
what are the side effects of spironolactone?
what can hyperkalaemia cause?
risk of arrhythmais
what does thumb printing at the splenic flexure indicate?
what is another name for the external urethral orifice?
which foods take the longest to digest?
what is the difference between haemorrhoids and rectal prolapse?
- prolapse of rectal venous plexus due to chronic constipation/pregnancy/portal hypertension
Rectal prolapse = the actual rectal tissue comes out
What does BUFALO stand for (sepsis management)?
Urine output (measure)
what is wilsons disease?
autosomal recessive disease of copper metabolism
what is grey turner's sign?
bruising of flanks
what is Cullen's sign?
what are the symptoms of acute pancreatitis?
grey turner's sign
epigastric pain radiating to the back
what is virchows node?
left supraclavicular lymph node
enlarged in gastric cancer
what do signet ring cells on biopsy indicate?
diffuse stomach cancer (linitis plastica)
what does high AFP (alphafeto protein) indicate?
what will oesophageal spasm look like on barium swallow?
abdominal pain and diarrhoea after sour milk or shellfish?
what is charcot's triad?
fever, jaundice, abdominal pain
indicates acute cholangitis
what is short bowel syndrome?
bowel <2m due to surgical resection
what is the blood supply to the foregut?
- common hepatic
- left gastric
what is the blood supply to the midgut?
- ileal and jejunal arteries
- ileo colics
- right colics
- middle colics
what is the blood supply to the hindgut?
- left colics (goes up becoming marginal artry which anastomoses with middle colics)
- sigmoid arteries
where is the adrenal gland?
suprarenal (above kidney)
what cells produce each substance in the GI tract?
CCK = I cells
Gastrin = G cells
Somatostatin = D cells
GIP = K cells
GLP-1 = L cells
Secretin = S cells
Motilin = M cells
Ghrelin = Gr cells
what is Zollinger Ellison Syndrome?
recurrent peptic ulcers due to gastrin secreting tumour
antibiotics are always used in gastroenteritis, true or false?
not given and stopped if they are causing it
especially in Ecoli
what is HUS?
haemolytic uraemic syndrome
- haemolytic anaemia
- acute kidney failure
- low platelets
caused by E.Coli
what often causes toxic megacolon?
what is haemochromatosis and how is it treated?
Iron overload disease
treated with phlemotomy and blood letting (regular blood removal)
what is leukonychia?
sign of hypoalbuminaemia
what is koilonychias?
sign of iron deficiency anaemia
what can cause prehepatic jaundice?
what can cause intrahepatic jaundice?
what can cause post hepatic jaundice?
- head of pancreas cancer
- gallbladder cancer
what are Mallory hyaline bodies?
darker splodges in cytoplasm of liver cells
indicate alcoholic lover disease
which muscle is important in urination and defaecation?
must relax to allow urination and defaecation
what vertebral level does the coeliac trunk arise?
at what vertebral level does the vena cava pass through the diaphragm?
at what vertebral level does the oesophagus pass through the diaphragm?
what is the aortic hiatus?
hole in diaphragm at T12 where aorta, azygous vein and hemiazygous vein pass through
what is PSC and what are the signs?
primary sclerosing cholangitis
beading of the bile ducts
assoc with UC
"onion skinning fibrosis"
what is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity when lying supine?
hepatorenal recess/Morrison's pouch
what is the rectouterine pouch/pouch of douglas?
area between rectum and uterus in females
what is the rectovesical pouch?
area between rectum and bladder in males
what does a very high creatinine indicate?
what is the buccinators?
muscle of cheek that moves food during mastication
antibody for PBC?
antibody for autoimmune hepatitis?
antibody for coeliac disease?
Anti transglutaminase antibody
antibody for UC and PSC?
also cANCA in PSC
what does CA-125 cause?
how does hemochromatosis present?
what is PBC assoc with?