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Flashcards in MSK Synap Deck (19)
1

how does spondilolithesis present?

lower back pain (as it usually occurs at L4/L5 or L5/S1)
radiculopathy (if severe)
flat back (due to muscle spasm)
waddling gait

2

how is spondilolithesis managed?

rest
physio
stabilisation and reduction in severe cases

3

what is spondilolithesis associated with?

usually in adolescents
associated with increased body weight and physical activity

4

back pain in children is a red flag, what 3 things can it signify?

infection
tumours
spondilolisthesis

5

what is perthes disease and who does it usually occur in?

idiopathic osteochondritis of the femoral head leading to avascular necrosis. This affects bone growth and development
usually occurs in boys aged 4-9

6

how does perthes disease characteristically present?

unilateral groin and knee pain with a limp in young active boys

7

how is perthes disease managed?

rest
activity modification
bracing
potentially surgery

8

what are the 4 stages in perthes?

necrosis/sclerosis
fragmentation
reossification
remodelling

9

any painful scoliosis requires what urgent investigation?

urgent MRI to rule out tumour or infection

10

what is the most common cause of painful fixed flat foot deformity and how is this managed?

tarsal coalition
splintage, orthotics or surgery

11

what are the 3 main features of ehlers danlos syndrome?

ligamentous laxity, hypermobile joints
vascular instability and bruising
scoliosis

12

Osgood schlatters vs sinding Larsen johanssen disease?

Osgood schlatters = tibial tubercle
sinding = inferior pole of patella
both managed with rest and physio

13

how is DDH managed?

pavlik harness in children up to 4-6 months old
- constantly for first 6 weeks
- only at night for following 6 weeks
if older than 4-6 months
- reduction with dye or open reduction

14

3 features of talipes equinovarus?

ankle equinus (plantarflexion)
supination of the forefoot
varus alignment of the forefoot

15

talipes equinovarus is due to a deformity between what 3 bones?

calcaneous
navicular
talus

16

what causes waiters tip posture?

erbs palsy
(C5, C6)

17

how is talipes equinovarus managed?

ponsetti technique
serial casts with 5-6 weekly changes
once correction is achieved, brace must be worn 23 hrs a day for 3 months, then only at night until age 3-4

18

what can cause pes cavus and claw toes?

spina bifida occulta

19

what is spina bifida oculta?

milder form of spina bifida
due to tethering of spinal cord at vertebral arch defect