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Flashcards in Ophthalmology Conditions Deck (55)
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1

how does blepharitis present?

gritty eyes
bilateral

2

anterior ve posterior blepharitis?

anterior = usually a bacterial infection (Staph)
dandruff in eyelashes
posterior = meibomian gland dysfunction, glands become blocked so tear film becomes unstable

3

how is blepharitis managed?

primarily targeted at lid hygiene
warm compress
artificial tears for comfort

4

bacterial conjunctivitis?

thick sticky discharge
red eye
usually unilateral but progresses to bilateral
papillae

5

what usually causes bacterial conjunctivitis?

staph aureus
strep pneumonia
h. influenzae (esp children)

6

how is bacterial conjunctivitis managed?

usually self limiting
chloramphenicol drop if severe or persistent

7

how does viral conjunctivitis present?

watery discharge
may have had a recent cold/URTI
follicles on lids

8

what usually causes viral conjunctivitis?

adenovirus

9

how is viral conjunctivitis managed?

self limiting but very contagious
good lid hygiene

10

how does chlamydial conjunctivitis present?

on-going red eye (2 or more weeks)
rice grain follicles on lids
unresponsive to previous treatment

11

how is chlamydial conjunctivitis managed?

oxytetracycline

12

what condition may present with blue/green discolouration in the eye?

keratitis

13

how does keratitis present?

pain
usually unilateral
redness
photophobia
reduced vision
epiphora

14

characteristic feature of bacterial keratitis? how is this managed?

hypopyon
required debridement and admission for hourly drops of fluroquinolones
requires corneal scrape to determine antibiotic sensitivities

15

what usually causes viral keratitis and how does this present?

adenoviral
herpes simplex = terminal end bulbs
herpes zoster = involvement of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (unilateral vesicular rash, Hutchinson's sign)

16

how is viral keratitis managed?

HSV = acyclovir
HZ = ocular lubricants and systemic pain relief

17

main risk factor for keratitis?

contact lens wearer

18

how does anterior uveitis present?

pain
circumlimbal redness
reduced vision (especially accommodation)
photophobia (can be recurring)

19

what are the 5 types of anterior uveitis?

autoimmune
infective (HSV, HZ)
malignancy
trauma
idiopathic

20

which autoimmune conditions are associated with anterior uveitis?

reiters (reactive arthritis)
UC
ankylosing spondylitis
sarcoidosis

21

what is reiters syndrome?

reactive arthritis with triad
- uveitis
- urethritis
- arthritis

22

signs of anterior uveitis on investigation?

cells and flare in anterior chamber seen on slit lamp investigation
keratic precipitates
hypopyon
synechiae (misshapen pupil)

23

how is anterior uveitis managed?

topical steroids (prednisolone acetate) and cyclopentolate

24

how does cataract present?

gradual deterioration (over several years) in vision
glare
painless
opacity in the lens

25

what can cause cataract?

most are age related
congenital
traumatic
drug induced

26

how is cataract managed?

surgery
lens replacement

27

what is glaucoma?

group of diseases characterised by progressive neuropathy resulting in characteristic visual field defects due to damage to individual bundles of nerve fibres in the optic nerve head)

28

what increases risk of angle closure glaucoma?

+ve family history
Chinese ethnicity
shallow anterior compartment
hypermetropic eye prescription

29

how does angle colure glaucoma present?

sudden pain
nausea
vomiting
often in the evening
pupil mid-dilated
redness
cells and flare
very high intraocular pressure (40+ mmHg)

30

how is angle closure glaucoma managed?

pilocarpine and acetazolamide
peripheral iridotomy