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Flashcards in Laxatives Deck (16)
1

name 3 bulk laxatives

ispagula husk
methylcellulose
Sterculia

2

how do bulk laxatives work?

indigestible hydrophilic agents
attract water to stool increasing bulk and stimulating peristalsis

3

cautions for all laxatives?

don't use if bowel obstructed or at risk of obstruction

4

indications for bulk laxative use?

constipation and faecal impaction
viral/bacterial gastritis
mild chronic diarrhoea (eg. assoc with IBS)

5

side effects of bulk laxatives?

abdo distension and flatulence
rare = faecal impaction and GI obstruction

6

name 4 osmotic laxatives

lactulose
macrogols
citrate
phosphate enemas

7

how do osmotic laxatives work?

osmotically active (sugars and alcohol) and not digested or absorbed
attract water to stool increasing bulk and stimulating peristalsis

8

how does lactulose work specifically?

reduces ammonia absorption via deceasing transit time
this acidifies the stool and inhibits proliferation of ammonia producing bacteria which helps liver failure

9

what are the indications for osmotic laxatives?

constipation and faecal impaction
bowel prep for surgery
hepatic encepahlopathy

10

what are the side effects of osmotic laxatives?

abdo pain and diarrhoea
phosphate enemas = local irritation and electrolyte disturbance

11

when must phosphate enemas be used with caution?

heart failure and electrolyte disturbance as they cause fluid shift

12

name 4 stimulant laxatives

senna
bisocodyl
glycerol suppository
docusate sodium

13

how do stimulant laxatives work?

increase water and electrolyte secretion from colonic mucosa increasing colon contents and stimulating peristalsis
can directly stimulate peristalsis via action on enteric NS
docusate sodium has stool softening action

14

indications for stimulant laxatives?

constipation
faecal impaciton

15

side effects of stimulant laxatives?

abdo pain and cramping
diarrhoea
prolonged use = irreversible atonic colon and reversible melanosis coli

16

what might stimulant laxatives be prescribed alongside?

long term opiates