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Flashcards in Revision Powerpoint Cardio Deck (67)
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1

general rules for endocarditis antibiotics?

needs high dose (IV)
long course (4-6 weeks)
bactericidal
synergistic effect of combination

2

what organisms cause native valve endocarditis?

staph aureus (most common)
strep viridans
enterococcus
staph epidermidis

3

what organisms cause endocarditis in IV drug users?

staph aureus

4

what organisms cause prosthetic valve endocarditis?

staph epidermidis
staph aureus

5

endocarditis after dentist?

strep viridans

6

endocarditis after line insertion?

staph epidermidis

7

treatment for prosthetic valve endocarditis?

vancomycin
rifampicin
gentamicin
valve replacement usually needed

8

normal P wave?

0.0-0.1 secs

9

normal QRS?

<0.1

10

PR interval?

AV node delay
0.12-0.2 secs

11

QT interval?

diastole
0.36-0.44 secs)

12

where is angiotensinogen produced?

liver

13

where is renin produced?

kidney

14

where is ACE produced?

lung surface

15

how do thiazide diuretics work?

reduce blood volume by increasing Na, Cl and H2O excretion

16

side effects of thiazide diuretics?

hypokalaemia
electrolyte disturbance

17

how do beta blockers work?

reduce sympathetic activity, reducing CO, reducing renin release from kidney

18

beta blocker side effects?

cold peripheries
asthma
fatigue

19

how do CCBs work?

block L type calcium channels, reducing Ca2+ entry into vascular smooth muscle, reducing contraction

20

side effects of CCBs?

ankle oedema

21

how do alpha blockers work?

block alpha 1 adrenoceptors causing vasodilation
reduces sympathetic transmission

22

side effects of alpha blockers?

dizziness
confusion

23

what is stage 1 hypertension?

BP > 14/90 in clinic
OR
ABPM average of 135/85

24

what is stage 2 hypertension?

clinic BP > 160/100
OR
ABPM average >150/95

25

causes of left sided heart failure?

ischaemid heart disease
cardiomyopathy
valvular disease

26

symptoms of left sided heart failure

dyspnoea on exertion/rest
orthopnoea
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
pink frothy sputum

27

signs of left heart failure?

tachycardia
fine crepatations
pleural effusion
S3 (gallop rhythm - S3 + tachycardia)

28

heart failure on CXR?

cardiomegaly
bat wing shadows (esp. lower zones)
interstitial fluid

29

right heart failure is usually 2ndary to left, true or false?

true

30

what can cause primary right heart failure?

cor pulmonale
congenital heart disease