Principles Flashcards Preview

Holy Grail Docs > Principles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles Deck (31)
1

what is Km?

concentration of substrate that gives half of the Vmax

2

what is Vmax?

the maximum velocity of the reaction

3

does haemoglobin follow michaelis menten?

no
its sigmoidal and allosteric
Myoglobin follows michaelies menten as its hyperboilic

4

what do competitive/non-competitive do to Vmax?

Competitive – Vmax remains the same, but the Km will vary – an example of this is methanol poisoning
Non-competitive – Vmax varies but the Km will stay the same

5

how does line weaver burk plot Vmax and Km accurately?

it plots them in a y=mx+c equation

6

what is the key enzyme of glycolysis?

phosphofructokinase–uses 2 ATP, makes 4 ATP– net +2ATP

7

what enzymes are responsible for entry/exit from TCA cycle?

entry = hexokinase
exit = pyruvate kinase

8

which Ig is in mucosa and breast milk?

IgA
- particularly effective against polio

9

which receptor does IgE bind to to bring about a response?

Fc receptors

10

what is the most abundant Ig?

IgG
- crosses the placenta

11

what is the first antibody produced in an infection?

IgM

12

what produces exo/endotoxin?

gram -ve = exotoxin
gram +ve = endotoxin

13

what antibiotic for gram +ve cover?

vancomycin

14

what are mycin antibiotics (eg. clarithromycin) used for?

strep infections

15

what is the inheritance pattern of CF?

autosomal reccessive

16

what are the characteristics of an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern?

2 mutated copies, usually unaffected parents – carriers, not seen in every generation

17

what is an oncogene? which types can cause cancer?

gene with potential to cause cancer via stimulated cell growth and inhibited cell death
Ras and Myc oncogenes

18

what are the tumour suppressor genes?

P53 (mainly)
APC
BRCA1

19

erection = parasympathetic stimulation
ejaculation = sympathetic stimulation, true or false?

true

20

what cells produce insulating material in the PNS?

schwann cells

21

what cells produce insulating cells in CNS?

oligodendrocytes

22

what is the function of astrocytes in the CNS?

homeostasis

23

what is the function of microglia in CNS?

immune surveillance

24

gram +ve cocci clusters?

staph

25

gram +ve cocci in chains?

strep
alpha haemolytic = strep pneumonia

26

what are beta lactams?

broad spectrum antibiotics that contain a beta lactam ring
- penicillin derivatives
- cephlasporins
- monobactams

27

what is atrophy?

decrease in cell size

28

is barrets oesophagus an example of meaplasia?

yes
change from squamous epithelial cells to columnar

29

what is neoplasia?

new growth not in response to stimulus
can be begin, pemalignant or malignant

30

when is neoplasia classed as malignant?

if it goes beyond the basement membrane

31

what is dysplasia?

disordered growth outwith stimulus
higher the grade, lower the prognosis