Flashcards in Principles Deck (31)
what is Km?
concentration of substrate that gives half of the Vmax
what is Vmax?
the maximum velocity of the reaction
does haemoglobin follow michaelis menten?
its sigmoidal and allosteric
Myoglobin follows michaelies menten as its hyperboilic
what do competitive/non-competitive do to Vmax?
Competitive – Vmax remains the same, but the Km will vary – an example of this is methanol poisoning
Non-competitive – Vmax varies but the Km will stay the same
how does line weaver burk plot Vmax and Km accurately?
it plots them in a y=mx+c equation
what is the key enzyme of glycolysis?
phosphofructokinase–uses 2 ATP, makes 4 ATP– net +2ATP
what enzymes are responsible for entry/exit from TCA cycle?
entry = hexokinase
exit = pyruvate kinase
which Ig is in mucosa and breast milk?
- particularly effective against polio
which receptor does IgE bind to to bring about a response?
what is the most abundant Ig?
- crosses the placenta
what is the first antibody produced in an infection?
what produces exo/endotoxin?
gram -ve = exotoxin
gram +ve = endotoxin
what antibiotic for gram +ve cover?
what are mycin antibiotics (eg. clarithromycin) used for?
what is the inheritance pattern of CF?
what are the characteristics of an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern?
2 mutated copies, usually unaffected parents – carriers, not seen in every generation
what is an oncogene? which types can cause cancer?
gene with potential to cause cancer via stimulated cell growth and inhibited cell death
Ras and Myc oncogenes
what are the tumour suppressor genes?
erection = parasympathetic stimulation
ejaculation = sympathetic stimulation, true or false?
what cells produce insulating material in the PNS?
what cells produce insulating cells in CNS?
what is the function of astrocytes in the CNS?
what is the function of microglia in CNS?
gram +ve cocci clusters?
gram +ve cocci in chains?
alpha haemolytic = strep pneumonia
what are beta lactams?
broad spectrum antibiotics that contain a beta lactam ring
- penicillin derivatives
what is atrophy?
decrease in cell size
is barrets oesophagus an example of meaplasia?
change from squamous epithelial cells to columnar
what is neoplasia?
new growth not in response to stimulus
can be begin, pemalignant or malignant
when is neoplasia classed as malignant?
if it goes beyond the basement membrane