Clinical Features and Management of Restrictive Lung Disease Flashcards Preview

Respiratory System > Clinical Features and Management of Restrictive Lung Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Features and Management of Restrictive Lung Disease Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the physiological definition of restriction?

Forced vital capacity less than 80% of the predicted normal

2

What is a marker of restriction?

Vital capacity

3

What are causes of restriction?

Lungs

Pleura

Nerve

Muscle

Bone

4

What are lung causes of restriction?

Interstitial lung diseases

5

What are examples of interstitial lung diseases?

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Sarcoidosis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

6

What are pleural causes of restriction?

Pleural effusions

Pneomothorax

Pleural thickening

7

What are skeletal causes of restriction?

Kyphoscoliosis

Ankylosing spondylitis

Thoracoplasty

Rib fractures

8

What are muscle causes of restriction?

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

9

What are sub-diaphragmatic causes of restriction?

Obesity

Pregnancy

10

What should you remember about the causes of restriction?

Not always lung disease

11

Where is the lung interstitium?

Between the epithelium of the alveoli and the endothelium of the capillary

12

What does ILD stand up for?

Interstitium lung disease

13

How many diseases cause the thickening of the interstitium and can result in pulmonary fibrosis?

More than 200

14

What are the top 3 lung diseases that cause interstitium lung disease?

Sarcoidosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Hypersensitive pneumonitis

15

What is sarcoidosis?

Multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause

16

What age and sex commonly gets sarcoidosis?

Younger than 40

Women more than men

17

How do you investigate sarcoidosis?

History and examination

Chest X-ray

Pulmonary function tests

Bloods

18

What further assessments can be done to investigate sarcoidosis?

Bronchoscopy including transbronchial biopsies and endobronchial ultrasound

19

What surgical biopsies can be done for sarcoidosis?

Mediastinoscopy

Video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy

20

What does VATS stand up for?

Video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy

21

How should sarcoidosis be treated if mild disease with no vital organ involvement, normal lung function and few symptoms?

No treatment

22

How should sarcoidosis be treated if erythema nodosum/arthralgia?

NSAIDS

23

What is erythema nodosum?

Swollen fat under the skin causing red bumps

24

What is swollen fat under the skin causing red bumps called?

Erythema nodosum

25

What is arthralgia?

Pain in a joint

26

What is pain in a joint called?

Arthralgia

27

How should sarcoidosis be treated if skin lesions and a cough are present?

Topical steroids

28

How should sarcoidosis be treated if cardiac, neurological and eye disease not responding to topical steroids, or are hypercalcaemia?

Systemic steroids

29

What are some permanent pulmonary complications that can occur due to sarcoidosis?

Progressive respiratory failure

Bronchiectasis

Aspergilloma

Pneumothorax

30

What percentage of caucasians die from sarcoidosis?

<1%