What is the UK incidence of pneumonia?
5-11/1000 adult population
What percentage of community acquired pneumonia requires hospitalisation?
Between 22 and 42%
What is the mortality of hospitalised patients with pneumonia?
What are some symptoms of pneumonia?
What are some signs of pneumonia?
Dullness on percussion of affected lobe
Bronchial breath sounds
Increased vocal resonance
What investigations are done for pneumonia?
Serum biochemistry, full blood count and C-reactive protein (CRP) test
Urinary legionella antigen
Sputum microscopy and culture
What microrganisms are the 3 three for causing pneumonia?
1) Strep pneumoniae (39%)
2) Chlamydophilia pneumoniae (13.1%)
3) All viruses (13.1%)
What is the severity of pneumonia measured by?
What does CURB 65 stand up for?
U blood urea > 7
R respiratory rate > 30
B diastolic blood pressure < 60
What is each aspect of CURB 65 given a score of?
0 (low risk and could be treated in the community)
1-2 (hospital treatment usually required)
3 (high risk of death and need for ITU)
What is the treatment for a CURB score of 0-1?
Amoxycillin or clarithromycin/deoxycycline
What is the treatment for a CURB 65 score of 2?
Amoxycillin and clarithromycin or levoflaxacin
What is the treatment for a CURB 65 score of 3-5?
Co-amoxiclav and clarithromycin or levoflaxacin (if penicillin alergic)
What are some things that come before pneumonia?
Staph pneumonia including PVL toxin
What treatment should be used for pneumonia caused by MRSA?
Vancomycin or linezolid
What are treatment for pneumonia other than antibiotics?
CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure, keeps airways open)
Intubation and ventilation
What does CPAP stand up for?
Continuous positive airway pressure
What are some possible complications of pneumonia treatment?
Acute kidney injury
ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome)
What does ARDS stand up for?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
What is acute respiratory distress syndrome?
Widespread inflammation of the lungs
What is differential diagnosis?
Process of differentiation between two or more conditions which share similar signs or symptoms
What is the process of differentiating between two or more conditions that share similar symptoms called?
What does differential diagnosis of pneumonia exclude?
What is empyema?
Collection of pus in the pleural cavity caused by microorganisms
What is a collection of pus in the pleura cavity caused by microorganisms called?
What may follow pneumonia?
What are the top 3 organisms that cause empyema?
Staph aureus (11%)
What is the prominant feature of empyema?
What symptoms is absent with empyema?
What is used to investigate empyema?
CT thorax and ultrasound