Pathology of Respiratory Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology of Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (82)
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1

What are different kinds of microorganisms in terms of pathogenecity?

Primary

Facultative

Opportunistic

2

What are primary microorganisms?

Can establish an infection in almost anyone

3

What are facultative microorganisms?

Requires defences to be reduced a little bit to cause disease

4

What are opportunistic microorganisms?

Not very infectious, do not have pathogenic properties to invade human tissue, but if defences are dropped then they can cause a clinically evident infection

5

What does the ability to resist infection depend on?

State of the host defence mechanism

Age of patient

6

What are some upper respiratory tract infections?

Coryza (common cold)

Sore throat syndrome

Acute laryngotracheobronchitis (coup)

Laryngitis

Sinusitis

Acute epiglottitis

7

What is the common cold also known as?

Coryza

8

What is coup also known as?

Laryngotracheobronchitis

9

What is acute epiglottis commonly caused by?

Group A beta haemolytic streptococci

Haemophilus influenza

10

Who seems to be most prone to acute epiglottitis?

Young children

11

What are some examples of lower respiratory tract infections?

Bronchitis

Bronchiolotis

Pneumonia (acute inflammatory process in the alveoli)

12

What is pneumonia?

Acute inflammatory process in the alveoli

13

What are some respiratory tract defence mechanisms?

Macrophage-mucociliary escalator system

General immune system

Respiratory secretions

Upper respiratory tract as a filter

14

What is the macrophage-mucociliary escalator system composed of?

Alveolar macrophages

Mucociliary escalator

Cough reflex

15

How does the upper respiratory tract help to prevent the lower respiratory tract from becoming infected?

Warms and humidifies air, supplying a large surface area where material in the air may be deposited so it does not reach the lower respiratory tract

16

How are particles cleared from the lungs?

Macrophage-mucociliary escalator:

 

1) Macrophages clear particles by phagocytosis

2) Leave via the muco-ciliary escalator or through lymph

17

What is pneumonia classified by?

Anatomical (understand radiology)

Aetiological (how acquired, such as from a hospital or community)

Microbiology (tells us how to treat the patient)

18

What are some different aetiological classifications of pneumonia?

Community acquired

Hospital acquired (nosocomial)

Pneumonia in the immunocompromised

Atypical pneumonia (caused by unusual organism)

Aspiration pneumonia

Recurrent pneumonia

19

What is a hospital acquired infection also known as?

Nosocomial infection

20

What are infections from hospital more likely to be?

Resistant to antibiotics

21

What are some different patterns of pneumonia?

Bronchopneumonia

Segmental

Lobar

Hypostatic

Aspiration

Obstructive, retention, endogenous lipid

22

What is hypostatic pneumonia?

Patient has some other pathological process that lead to the accumulation of fluid in the lung, such as cardiac failure with chronic edema

23

What occurs in bronchopneumonia?

Acute inflammation

Pus from polymorphs replaces air

Accumulation of neutrophils in alveolar space

24

What is the infected site in segmental and lobar pneumonia normally like?

Unilateral in a single site or area of the lung which is infected

25

How does segmental and lobar pneumonia differ from bronchopneuonia?

Segmental and lobar are at a single site whereas broncho is multilocal

26

What is bronchopneumonia characerised by?

Spots of infection stay around alveoli

Rare for infection to reach the pleura

Basal parts of the lungs infected

27

What is lobar pneumonia characterised by?

Large amount of lung infected by the same inflammatory process

Could be an entire lobe

Meaning the whole part is airless due to being filled with pus

28

What kind of pneumonia could lead to a pleural infection?

Lobar, pleural infections are rare with bronchopneumonia

29

What are possible outcomes of pneumonia?

Most resolve

Pleurisy, pleural effusion and emphysema

Organisation

Lung abscess

Bronchiectasis

30

What are examples of pneumonia leading to organisation?

Mass lesion

Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)

Constructive bronchiolotis