What is the most common cancer to cause death?
What is the aetiology of lung cancer?
Other occupational exposure (chromates, hydrocarbons, nickel)
Air pollution and urban environment
What chemicals can lead to lung cancer?
What percentage of lung cancer is due to smoking?
What percentage of smokers get lung cancer?
How does smoking affect the risk of getting lung cancer in males and females?
Males are 22x more at risk and females are 12x more at risk
What is the risk of smoking and causing lung cancer proportionate to?
Packs per day per year
How does passive smoke increase the risk of lung cancer?
50-100% increased risk
What percentage of non-smoking lung cancers does passive smoke cause?
What is passive smoking?
Involuntary inhaling of smoke from other people's cigarettes
How does stopping smoking change your risk of getting lung cancer?
Risk slowly decreases
What does abstinence mean?
Practice of restraining oneself from indulging in something
What percentage of males and females in the UK smoke?
What percantage of males and females in the world smoke?
50% of men
12% of woman
What does tobacco smoke do that leads to lung cancer?
Multi-hit theory of carcinogenesis
Host activation of pro-carcinogens
What are the 2 main pathways of carcinogenesis in the lung?
Squamous cell carcinoma in the central lung airways
Adenocarcinoma in the lung periphery
Where does squamous cell carcinoma occur?
Central lung airways
Where does adenocarcinoma occur?
What happens during adenocarcinoma?
Bronchioloalveolar epithelial stem cells transform
What happens during squamous cell carcinoma?
Bronchial epithelial stem cells transform
What is a squamous dysplasia becoming an invasive bronchogenic carcinoma strongly linked with?
What are the key driver mutations for adenocarcinoma?
BRAF, HER2 (1-2%)
ALK rearrangements (2%)
ROS1 gene rearrangements (1%)
What mutational driver for lung cancer is smoking induced?
What mutations linked to adenocarcinomas has therapy been approved for targeting?
What therpies that target mutations linked to squamous cell carcinomas has been approved?
Very few suitable targets
Commonest alterations are inactivating mutations in tumour suppresor genes
What are some examples of tumours of the lungs>
Benign causes of mass lesion
Tumours of bronchial glands
What is a carcinoid tumour?
One originating in the neuroendocrine system
What are tumours originating in the neuroendocrine system called?
What is the malignancy of carcinoid tumours?
Low grade malignancy
What percentage of lung neoplasms are carcinoid tumours?