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Flashcards in Pathology of Lung Cancer Deck (82)
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1

What is the most common cancer to cause death?

Lung cancer

2

What is the aetiology of lung cancer?

Tobacco

Asbestos

Environmental radon

Other occupational exposure (chromates, hydrocarbons, nickel)

Air pollution and urban environment

Other radiation

Pulmonary fibrosis

3

What chemicals can lead to lung cancer?

Chromates

Hydrocarbons

Nickel

Asbestos

4

What percentage of lung cancer is due to smoking?

85%

5

What percentage of smokers get lung cancer?

10%

6

How does smoking affect the risk of getting lung cancer in males and females?

Males are 22x more at risk and females are 12x more at risk

7

What is the risk of smoking and causing lung cancer proportionate to?

Packs per day per year

8

How does passive smoke increase the risk of lung cancer?

50-100% increased risk

9

What percentage of non-smoking lung cancers does passive smoke cause?

25%

10

What is passive smoking?

Involuntary inhaling of smoke from other people's cigarettes

11

How does stopping smoking change your risk of getting lung cancer?

Risk slowly decreases

12

What does abstinence mean?

Practice of restraining oneself from indulging in something

13

What percentage of males and females in the UK smoke?

33%

14

What percantage of males and females in the world smoke?

50% of men

12% of woman

15

What does tobacco smoke do that leads to lung cancer?

Epithelial effects

Multi-hit theory of carcinogenesis

Host activation of pro-carcinogens

16

What are the 2 main pathways of carcinogenesis in the lung?

Squamous cell carcinoma in the central lung airways

Adenocarcinoma in the lung periphery

17

Where does squamous cell carcinoma occur?

Central lung airways

18

Where does adenocarcinoma occur?

Lung periphery

19

What happens during adenocarcinoma?

Bronchioloalveolar epithelial stem cells transform

20

What happens during squamous cell carcinoma?

Bronchial epithelial stem cells transform

21

What is a squamous dysplasia becoming an invasive bronchogenic carcinoma strongly linked with?

Smoking

22

What are the key driver mutations for adenocarcinoma?

KRAS (35%)

EGFR (15%

BRAF, HER2 (1-2%)

ALK rearrangements (2%)

ROS1 gene rearrangements (1%)

23

What mutational driver for lung cancer is smoking induced?

KRAS

24

What mutations linked to adenocarcinomas has therapy been approved for targeting?

EGFR mutation

BRAF mutation

ALK rearrangement

ROS1 rearrangement

 

25

What therpies that target mutations linked to squamous cell carcinomas has been approved?

Very few suitable targets

Commonest alterations are inactivating mutations in tumour suppresor genes

26

What are some examples of tumours of the lungs>

Benign causes of mass lesion

Carcinoid tumour

Tumours of bronchial glands

Lymphoma

Sarcoma

27

What is a carcinoid tumour?

One originating in the neuroendocrine system

28

What are tumours originating in the neuroendocrine system called?

Carcinoid tumours

29

What is the malignancy of carcinoid tumours?

Low grade malignancy

30

What percentage of lung neoplasms are carcinoid tumours?

<5%