What cancer causes the most deaths?
How many cancer deaths are due to lung cancer?
1 in 5 (22%)
What percentage of lung cancer does smoking account for?
What are some risk factors for lung cancer?
Smoking (more than 85%)
What are some of the symptoms of lung cancer?
Coughing up blood
Rapsy, hoarse voice
Shortness of breath
Unexplained weight loss
What is paraneoplastic syndrome?
Symptoms due to cancer but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells
What are some metastatic symptoms of advanced lung cancer?
Spinal cord compression
What do cerebral metastasis lead to?
What does spinal cord compression lead to?
What is paraesthesia?
Burning or prickling sensation
What is a burning or prickling sensation called?
What paraneoplastic symptoms does advanced lung cancer have?
Hyponatraemia (decreased serum sodium concentration)
Hypercalcaemia (increase in serum calcium levels)
What is hyponatraemia?
Decrease in serum sodium levels
What is a decrease in serum sodium levels called?
What is hypercalcaemia?
Increase in serum calcium levels
What is an increase in serum calcium levels called?
What are some clinical signs of cancer?
Lymphadenopathy (abnormal size or number of lymph nodes)
Horner's syndrome (damage to sympathetic nerves of the face)
Pancoast tumour (tumour of pulmonary apex)
Superior vena cava obstruction
Hepatomegaly (abnormal enlargement of the liver)
What is lymphadenopathy?
Abnormal size or number of lymph nodes
What is abnormal size or number of lymph nodes called?
What is Horner's syndrome?
Damage to sympathetic nerves of the face
What is a pancoast tumour?
Tumour of the pulmonary apex
What is hepatomegaly?
Abnormal enlargement of the liver
What is abnormal enlargement of the liver called?
What are some initial investigations done for lung cancer?
Full blood count
Renal, liver function and calcium
What is used to stage lung cancer?
CT of the thorax
What investigations of tissues are done for lung cancer?
Image guided lung biopsy
Image guided liver biopsy
Fine needle aspiration of neck node or skin metastasis
Excision of cerebral metastasis
Surgical excision biopsy
What is the most common type of lung cancer by histology?
What percentage of lung cancer are adenocarcinoma?
What percentage of lung cancers are squamous cell carcinoma?
What percentage of lung cancers are large cell carcinoma?