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Flashcards in Clinical Features of Lung Cancer and Staging Deck (74)
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1

What cancer causes the most deaths?

Lung cancer

2

How many cancer deaths are due to lung cancer?

1 in 5 (22%)

3

What percentage of lung cancer does smoking account for?

>85%

4

What are some risk factors for lung cancer?

Smoking (more than 85%)

Passive smoking

Asbestos

Radon

Air pollution

Diesel exhause

5

What are some of the symptoms of lung cancer?

Chronic coughing

Coughing up blood

Wheezing sound

Chest infections

Difficulty swallowing

Rapsy, hoarse voice

Shortness of breath

Unexplained weight loss

Nail clubbing

6

What is paraneoplastic syndrome?

Symptoms due to cancer but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells

7

What are some metastatic symptoms of advanced lung cancer?

Bone pain

Spinal cord compression

Cerebral metastases

Thrombosis

8

What do cerebral metastasis lead to?

Headache

Vomiting

Dizziness

 

9

What does spinal cord compression lead to?

Limb weakness

Paraesthesia

Bladder/bowel dysfunction

10

What is paraesthesia?

Burning or prickling sensation

11

What is a burning or prickling sensation called?

Paraesthesia

12

What paraneoplastic symptoms does advanced lung cancer have?

Hyponatraemia (decreased serum sodium concentration)

Anaemia

Hypercalcaemia (increase in serum calcium levels)

13

What is hyponatraemia?

Decrease in serum sodium levels

14

What is a decrease in serum sodium levels called?

Hyponatraemia

15

What is hypercalcaemia?

Increase in serum calcium levels

16

What is an increase in serum calcium levels called?

Hypercalcaemia

17

What are some clinical signs of cancer?

Chest signs

Clubbing

Lymphadenopathy (abnormal size or number of lymph nodes)

Horner's syndrome (damage to sympathetic nerves of the face)

Pancoast tumour (tumour of pulmonary apex)

Superior vena cava obstruction

Hepatomegaly (abnormal enlargement of the liver)

Skin nodules

18

What is lymphadenopathy?

Abnormal size or number of lymph nodes

19

What is abnormal size or number of lymph nodes called?

Lymphadenopathy

20

What is Horner's syndrome?

Damage to sympathetic nerves of the face

21

What is a pancoast tumour?

Tumour of the pulmonary apex

22

What is hepatomegaly?

Abnormal enlargement of the liver

23

What is abnormal enlargement of the liver called?

Hepatomegaly

24

What are some initial investigations done for lung cancer?

Chest X-ray

Full blood count

Renal, liver function and calcium

Clotting screen

Spirometry

25

What is used to stage lung cancer?

CT of the thorax

26

What investigations of tissues are done for lung cancer?

Bronchoscopy

Endobronchial ultrasound

Image guided lung biopsy

Image guided liver biopsy

Fine needle aspiration of neck node or skin metastasis

Excision of cerebral metastasis

Mediastinoscopy

Surgical excision biopsy

27

What is the most common type of lung cancer by histology?

Adenocarcinoma

28

What percentage of lung cancer are adenocarcinoma?

40%

29

What percentage of lung cancers are squamous cell carcinoma?

30%

30

What percentage of lung cancers are large cell carcinoma?

10%