What is the assessment of the patient used to determine?
Staging of the lung cancer
Fitness of the patient
What needs to be determined to stage lung cancer?
T, N and M status
What are common clinical findings in the history for lung cancer?
Pain (especially bone pain)
Headaches or neurological symptoms including personality change
Haematuria (presence of red blood cells in the urine)
What is haematouria?
Presence of red blood cells in the urine
What is presence of red blood cells in the urine called?
What are common clinical findings in the examination with lung cancer?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy
Brachial plexus palsy
Superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO)
Supraclavicular lymph nodes
Soft tissue nodules
Chest wall masses
Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
What is hepatomegaly?
Abnormally enlarged liver
What is abnormally enlarged liver called?
What can chest X-rays be used to determine?
Chest wall invasion
Phrenic nerve palsy
Collapsed lobe or lung
What is pleural effusion?
Build of of excessive fluid between the pleura
What is the build up of excessive fluid between the pleura called?
What are some tests that are useful for staging cancer other than CT?
What does ECHO stand for?
What is an echocardiogram (ECHO)?
Ultrasound scan used to look at the heart and nearby blood vessels
What is MRI useful for?
Determine degree of vascular and neurological involvement
What test is best for determining the degree of vascular and neurological involvement?
What is bone scan useful for?
Test for chest wall invasion and for bony metastasis
What test is best for checking chest wall invasion or bony metastasis?
What is an echocardiogram (ECHO) useful for?
Demonstrate presence or absence of significant pericardial effusion
What test is best for demonstrating the presence or absence of pericardial effusion?
What is used for the surgical staging of lung cancer?
What is the fitness for surgery determined by?
What systems are looked at during the clinical assessment to determine if someone is fit for surgery?
What, in terms of the cardiovascular system, is check when determining fitness for surgery?
High blood pressure
Peripheral vascular disease
What is angina?
Chest pain due to not enough blood flow to the heart
What is chest pain due to not enough blood flow to the heart called?
What is carotid bruits?
Vascular murmur sound (bruit) heard over the carotid artery
What is a vascular murmur sound heard over the carotid artery called?
What is a heart murmur?
Unusual sound heard between heart beats
What is an unusual sound heard between heart beats called?